Table 1

Population characteristics per dataset

Discovery hormone datasetReplication hormone datasetLung function dataset
MalesFemalesMalesFemalesMalesFemales
N140 941163 66170 32182 033158 693183 133
Age (years), median (min-max)58 (39–72)57 (39–70)58 (37–73)58 (40–71)58 (39–72)57 (39–71)
>50 years, N (%)104 389 (74)119 869 (73)51 978 (74)60 245 (73)117 735 (74)135 419 (74)
Height (cm), mean (SE)176 (0.02)162 (0.02)176 (0.03)162 (0.02)176 (0.02)163 (0.01)
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SE)27.8 (0.01)27.1 (0.01)27.8 (0.02)27.1 (0.02)27.8 (0.01)27.0 (0.01)
Smoking status
Never-smoker, N (%)69 047 (49%)97 637 (60%)34 598 (49%)48 877 (60%)77 469 (49%)106 280 (58%)
Ex-smoker, N (%)54 148 (38%)51 304 (31%)26 898 (38%)25 598 (31%)62 432 (39%)60 883 (33%)
Current-smoker, N (%)17 529 (12%)14 461 (9%)8699 (12%)7428 (9%)18 755 (12%)15 913 (9%)
Pack-years (years), mean (SE)26.1 (0.09)20.1 (0.07)26.2 (0.13)20.4 (0.11)25.6 (0.09)19.9 (0.07)
Menopause, N (%)98 791 (60%)49 884 (61%)111 601 (61%)
Moderate physical activity, N (%)*67 420 (50%)75 356 (49%)33 546 (50%)37 614 (49%)76 836 (50%)85 322 (49%)
Hormone measurements
N Testosterone (%)140 216 (99%)139 591 (85%)69 933 (99%)69 916 (85%)
Testosterone (nmol/L), median (IQR)11.62 (4.71)1.01 (0.65)11.61 (4.70)1.01 (0.66)
N SHBG (%)129 700 (92%)150 365 (92%)64 804 (92%)75 325 (92%)
SHBG (nmol/L), median (IQR)36.96 (20.25)56.46 (37.40)36.93 (20.21)56.25 (37.03)
Lung function outcomes
FEV1 (L), mean (SE)3.35 (0.002)2.43 (0.001)
FVC (L), mean (SE)4.46 (0.002)3.20 (0.001)
FEV1/FVC (%), mean (SE)74.91 (0.02)75.96 (0.01)
Airflow obstruction†, N (%)15 341 (10%)14 976 (8%)
  • *Reported 4 or more days doing 10 min or more of moderate physical activities like carrying light loads, cycling at normal pace (does not include walking).

  • †Airflow obstruction= FEV1/FVC<lower limit of normal based on GLI-2012.

  • BMI, body mass index; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC, forced vital capacity; SHBG, sex hormone binding globulin.