Table 2

Comparison of various markers of study outcomes after exposure to CBD-containing vaping product (CBD-vape) and nicotine-containing vaping product (Nic-vape)

Study outcomesMarkersResults CBD-Vape vs Nic-Vape
1. Lung damageTotal protein levels in BALEquivalent
FITC-dextran levels in bloodMore in CBD-Vape (****)
Albumin levels in BALMore in CBD-Vape (****)
NE levels in BALEquivalent
NE levels in lungsMore in CBD-Vape (**)
MPO activity in BALEquivalent
MPO activity in lungsMore in CBD-Vape (**)
2. Inflammatory markersIL-6More CBD-Vape (***)
G-CSFMore in CBD-Vape (**)
IL-5More in CBD-Vape (**)
3. Immune cellsTotal lung immune infiltrateMore in CBD-Vape (*)
# of NeutrophilsEquivalent
# of CD8+ T cellsMore in CBD-Vape (***)
# of CD4+ T cellsMore in CBD-Vape (****)
# of CD19+ B cells/gm lungEquivalent
# of CD4+ IL-17A+T cells/gm lungEquivalent
# of CD4+ RORgt+ T cells/gm lungMore in CBD-Vape (****)
# of CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells/gm lungMore in CBD-Vape (***)
# of CD11c+ Siglec-F+ macrophages/gm of lungEquivalent
# of CD11c+ CD206+ interstitial macrophages/gm of lungLess in CBD-Vape (*)
# of CD11c+ Arginase-1+ macrophages/gm of lungLess in CBD-Vape (*)
3. HistologyGranulocytesFrequency and severity greater in CBD-Vape
MacrophagesFrequency and severity greater in CBD-Vape
LymphocytesFrequency and severity greater in CBD-Vape
Lipid-containing, intra-alveolar macrophagesEquivalent
4. Oxidative stressTotal antioxidant levels in lungs and BALEquivalent
5. Small airway epithelial cell toxicityCell deathHigher but not significant
Epithelial barrier integrity disruptionHigher but not significant
6. Human neutrophil dysfunctionHigher but not significantMore in CBD-Vape (***)
Apoptotic cell deathMore in CBD-Vape (***)
NE release in condition mediaMore in CBD-Vape (*)
  • Non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test with FDR correction for multiple comparisons was performed to see if statistically significant differences exist between CBD-Vape vs Nic-Vape for various parameters measured in the study using GraphPad Prism V.9 software (GraphPad; La Jolla, California, USA). The difference between two groups was considered significant at p<0.05 obtained when FDR was set at Q<0.1 and are indicated with the symbols.

  • *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001, ****p<0.0001.

  • CBD, cannabidiol; FDR, false discovery rate; NE, neutrophil elastase.