Table 3

Adjusted* association between the exposure of the interest, primary definition (a physician-diagnosed OSA requiring PAP treatment), as compared with the no-OSA group and COVID-19-related outcomes by a presence of cardiometabolic or chronic airways disease. estimates presented as cause-specific HRs and 95% CI

OutcomeCardiometabolic morbidityChronic airways disease
NoYesP value for the interaction term†NoYesP value for the interaction term†
COVID-19-positive test result1.24 (1.18 to 1.30)1.14 (1.09 to 1.18)0.01081.10 (1.06 to 1.14)1.34 (1.25 to 1.44)<0.0001
COVID-19-related ED visit1.71 (1.50 to 1.95)1.58 (1.46 to 1.71)0.31061.48 (1.39 to 1.57)1.89 (1.62 to 2.21)0.0036
COVID-19-related hospitalisation2.12 (1.76 to 2.56)1.41 (1.27 to 1.56)0.00011.21 (1.09 to 1.35)1.99 (1.67 to 2.37)<0.0001
COVID-19-related ICU admission2.29 (1.63 to 3.22)1.43 (1.17 to 1.74)0.01951.32 (1.08 to 1.61)1.85 (1.31 to 2.62)0.0918
COVID-19-related mortality‡1.47 (0.81 to 2.67)0.95 (0.80 to 1.14)0.16760.71 (0.57 to 0.90)1.37 (1.04 to 1.82)0.0004
  • *Weight allocation using the ATT approach (primary analysis).

  • †We incorporated in the Cox regression on an ATT weighted sample an interaction between OSA exposure and cardiometabolic morbidity and OSA exposure and chronic lung disease, separately.

  • ‡Death within 30-days of a positive COVID-19 test.

  • ATT, average treatment effect on the treated; ED, emergency department; ICU, intensive care unit; OSA, obstructive sleep apnoea; PAP, positive airway pressure.