Table 3

Factors associated with lung function impairment in all children

Univariable analysisMultivariable analysis
OR (95% CI)P valueaOR (95% CI)P value
Post-TB case4.2 (1.5 to 12.0)0.0093.9 (1.1 to 15.1)0.047
Age ≥10 years2.4 (0.8 to 7.9)0.5163.0 (0.7 to 12.1)0.121
Male1.0 (0.3 to 3.5)0.9150.7 (0.2 to 2.2)0.504
BCG scar present3.1 (0.4 to 25.7)0.291
Stunted11.0 (1.3 to 92.0)0.0014.3 (0.6 to 31.4)0.147
Underweight5.7 (1.2 to 27.1)0.0043.2 (0.9 to 12.2)0.080
Comorbidities
 HIV infection17.0 (1.9 to 151.2)0.0162.0 (0.1 to 49.6)0.671
 Asthma1.5 (0.1 to 16.9)0.739
 Non-TB LRTI in preceding 12 months1.5 (0.3 to 8.6)0.634
 Allergies1.5 (0.4 to 6.4)0.574
Respiratory symptoms*
 Cough4.2 (1.1 to 15.8)0.00219.0 (1.6 to 226.0)0.006
 Sputum3.2 (0.5 to 20.5)0.1950.1 (0.1 to 1.9)0.137
 Wheeze1.1 (0.2 to 7.2)0.902
 Easy fatigability2.6 (0.7 to 10.1)0.207
 Chest pain1.9 (0.4 to 8.6)0.0094.7 (0.8 to 29.4)0.096
 Failure to gain weight3.6 (1.5 to 9.0)0.0117.1 (0.8 to 66.9)0.087
 Any respiratory symptom2.8 (0.7 to 11.6)0.0140.1 (0.01 to 1.3)0.094
Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke1.1 (0.1 to 13.3)0.935
  • Data are presented as n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *Question read as follows: ‘Have you had any of the following occurring often or repeatedly in the last 6 months?’.

  • aOR, adjusted OR; LRTI, lower respiratory tract infections; TB, tuberculosis.