Table 1

Participant characteristics and outcomes at baseline

DescriptorTotal
(n=119*)
Control (n=60*)Intervention (n=59*)
Demographics
Age in years, mean (SD)50.61 (10.98)52.03 (11.10)49.17 (10.75)
Gender, n (%)
 Male53 (44.5)26 (43.3)27 (45.8)
 Female66 (55.5)34 (56.7)32 (54.2)
In-hospital treatment modalities
Days from onset to admission, mean (SD)7.47 (9.80)7.05 (10.60)7.90 (8.97)
Disease severity†, n (%)
 Not severe81 (68.1)44 (73.3)37 (62.7)
 Severe38 (31.9)16 (26.7)22 (37.3)
Oxygen support or non-invasive ventilation, n (%)
 Yes103 (86.6)54 (90.0)49 (83.1)
Treatment with corticosteroids, n (%)
 Yes49 (41.2)23 (38.3)26 (44.1)
Length of inpatient stay, mean (SD)26.18 (15.25)23.73 (11.00)28.66 (18.37)
Medical history (baseline)
Comorbidity presence, n (%)
 None46 (38.7)21 (35.0)25 (42.4)
 Single45 (37.8)24 (40.0)21 (35.6)
 Multi28 (23.5)15 (25.0)13 (22.0)
Comorbidity types, n (%)
 Heart disease9 (7.6)7 (11.7)2 (3.4)
 Hypertension26 (21.9)18 (30.0)8 (13.6)
 Diabetes17 (14.3)9 (15.0)8 (13.6)
 Obesity17 (14.3)8 (13.33)9 (15.3)
 Lung disease (including inactive TB)7 (5.9)3 (5.0)4 (6.8)
 Other comorbidity28 (23.5)12 (20.0)16 (27.1)
Smoking history, n (%)
 Yes15 (12.6)6 (10.0)9 (15.3)
Trial information
 Days from hospital discharge to baseline, mean (SD)70.07 (16.85)71.15 (13.22)68.97 (19.94)
 Days from baseline to post-treatment assessment, mean (SD)‡42.86 (2.12)43.02 (1.87)42.67 (2.37)
 Days from baseline to follow-up assessment, mean (SD)§197.30 (8.41)196.87 (8.26)197.78 (8,62)
Outcomes (baseline)
6MWD (m), mean (SD)507.18 (88.27)499.98 (93.41)514.52 (82.87)
Squat time (s), mean (SD)36.66 (23.51)38.60 (25.07)34.68 (21.85)
Spirometry¶
 FEV1 (L), mean (SD)2.19 (0.71)2.14 (0.69)2.24 (0.74)
 FEV1 (% predicted), mean (SD)78.53 (16.86)77.95 (15.45)79.10 (18.25)
 FEV1 below LLN, n (%)50 (43.5)24 (42.1)26 (44.8)
 FVC (L), mean (SD)2.77 (0.82)2.69 (0.87)2.85 (0.75)
 FVC (% predicted), mean (SD)82.04 (15.20)80.43 (15.39)83.62 (14.99)
 FVC below LLN, n (%)45 (39.1)22 (38.6)23 (39.7)
 FEV1/FVC0.80 (0.13)0.81 (0.12)0.79 (0.14)
 FEV1/FVC (% predicted), mean (SD)96.43 (15.93)97.86 (15.03)95.03 (16.78)
 FEV1/FVC below LLN, n (%)26 (22.6)12 (21.1)14 (24.1)
 MVV (L/min)68.72 (28.90)63.05 (26.12)74.30 (30.60)
 MVV (% predicted), mean (SD)62.69 (22.13)58.94 (20.86)66.37 (22.88)
 PEF (L/s)3.93 (2.07)3.66 (1.75)4.21 (2.33)
 PEF (% predicted), mean (SD)48.94 (21.77)46.41 (18.20)51.42 (24.70)
SF-12 PCS, mean (SD)39.42 (7.09)39.69 (7.06)39.15 (7.16)
SF-12 MCS, mean (SD)44.40 (8.48)44.13 (8.25)44.67 (8.76)
mMRC-dyspnoea, n (%)
 2 ‘On level ground, walks slower than people of same age because of breathlessness or has to stop for breath when walking at own pace’.116 (97.5)58 (96.7)58 (98.3)
 3 ‘Stops for breath after walking about 100 yards or after a few minutes on level ground’.3 (2.5)2 (3.3)1 (1.7)
  • *Unless otherwise stated.

  • †Cases were defined as severe when patients met one of the following criteria at any time during hospitalisation: acute respiratory distress, respiratory rate ≥30 breath/min; pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) ≤93% at rest; arterial blood partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) ≤300 mm Hg (1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa); respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation; septic shock; failure of other organs requiring intensive care unit treatment.42

  • ‡n=112 (control=60, intervention=52).

  • §n=105 (control=55, intervention=50).

  • ¶For spirometry n=115 (control=57, intervention=58); one baseline value missing, three invalid entries in case record form. FEV1, FCV, FEV1/FVC predictions and lower limits of normal according to Global Lung Initiative 2012,21 MVV, PEF predictions according to Mu and Liu.22

  • MCS, mental component score; mMRC, modified Medical Research Council; MVV, maximum voluntary ventilation; PCS, physical component score; PEF, peak expiratory flow; SF-12, Short Form Health Survey-12.