Table 6

Race-specific and gender-specific incidence rate and HR (95% CIs) of SCD for airflow obstruction*

WhitesBlacks
IR (per 1000
person-y)
IRRHR (95% CI)P valueIR (per 1000
person-y)
IRRHR (95% CI)P value
Males
No airflow obstruction2.501.001.004.521.001.00
 Airflow obstruction2.841.13 (0.90 to 1.44)1.21 (0.96 to 1.52)0.115.921.31 (0.93 to 1.85)1.35 (0.95 to 1.93)0.10
 Mild airflow obstruction2.551.02 (0.79 to 1.31)1.07 (0.84 to 1.37)0.585.011.11 (0.75 to 1.63)1.16 (0.78 to 1.72)0.46
 Moderate/moderately severe/severe/very severe airflow obstruction4.361.74 (1.20 to 2.49)1.92 (1.35 to 2.73)<0.0019.882.19 (1.27 to 3.61)2.27 (1.32 to 3.92)0.003
No bronchitis2.721.001.005.061.001.00
 Self-reported diagnosis of bronchitis2.170.80 (0.43 to 1.36)0.85 (0.49 to 1.45)0.545.051.00 (0.36 to 2.23)0.75 (0.28 to 2.05)0.58
No emphysema/COPD2.671.001.004.991.001.00
 Self-reported diagnosis of emphysema/COPD3.411.29 (0.59 to 2.49)1.54 (0.79 to 2.99)0.2118.243.66 (0.75 to 10.91)4.60 (1.46 to 14.55)0.009
No asthma2.721.001.005.121.001.00
 Self-reported diagnosis of asthma2.280.84 (0.47 to 1.39)0.81 (0.48 to 1.37)0.444.260.83 (0.33 to 1.76)0.95 (0.44 to 2.05)0.90
Females
No airflow obstruction0.731.001.002.601.001.00
 Airflow obstruction1.361.85 (1.29 to 2.67)1.95 (1.37 to 2.78)<0.0013.251.25 (0.85 to 1.81)1.24 (0.85 to 1.81)0.26
 Mild airflow obstruction1.151.57 (1.07 to 2.31)1.62 (1.11 to 2.36)0.112.971.14 (0.75 to 1.71)1.18 (0.79 to 1.78)0.42
 Moderate/moderately severe/severe/very severeairflow obstruction3.214.37 (2.45 to 7.50)4.97 (2.92 to 8.45)<0.0014.591.77 (0.85 to 3.32)1.52 (0.76 to 3.05)0.24
No bronchitis0.941.001.002.861.001.00
 Self-reported diagnosis of bronchitis1.541.63 (1.01 to 2.54)1.55 (0.99 to 2.44)0.062.030.71 (0.30 to 1.44)0.76 (0.37 to 1.57)0.46
No emphysema/COPD1.001.001.002.811.001.00
 Self-reported diagnosis of emphysema/COPD2.362.36 (0.48 to 7.04)3.39 (1.08 to 10.69)0.044.081.45 (0.65 to 3.23)1.68 (0.71 to 3.98)0.24
No asthma1.001.001.002.941.001.00
 Self-reported diagnosis of asthma1.211.21 (0.57 to 2.30)1.17 (0.60 to 2.32)0.642.320.79 (0.45 to 1.39)0.82 (0.51 to 1.32)0.41
  • *Adjusted for age (continuous), education level, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, smoking status, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, history of heart failure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, fibrinogen level, albumin level, von Willebrand factor and QTc duration.

  • IR, incidence rate; IRR, incidence rate ratio;SCD, sudden cardiac death.