Table 2

Health-related quality of life* of survivors of COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome

3 months (n=98)
Median (IQR)
6 months (n=77)
Median (IQR)
12 months (n=51)
Median (IQR)
P value†
Physical functioning50 (43–55)52 (46–55)52 (48–55)0.082
Role, physical39 (28–56)56 (35–56)56 (35–56)<0.01
Bodily pain55 (44–56)54 (43–56)56 (48–56)0.425
General health54 (44–59)50 (43–59)54 (48–59)0.093
Vitality53 (46–59)52 (44–59)54 (47–59)0.600
Social functioning54 (44–60)49 (44–60)54 (49–60)0.364
Role, emotional56 (39–56)56 (48–56)56 (48–56)0.335
Mental health55 (51–62)58 (51–62)56 (53–62)0.558
Physical component summary (PCS)43 (36–51)50 (39–53)50 (44–53)<0.01
Mental component summary (MCS)52 (46–56)50 (45–57)54 (47–60)0.086
  • Each of the eight scale measures has been reported as a t-score. The t-scores are a linear transformation of the 0–100 possible range scoring for the SF-36 scales that give every scale a mean of 50 and SD of 10, normed to the Italian general population according to Apolone et al 12 . PCS and MCS were calculated according to Taft et al 13 using the coefficient from Ware et al.14 PCS and MCS are reported as a t-score metric normed for the Italian general population.

  • *Unknown or missing data: for all the items of SF-36 version 1: 22 (3 months), 5 (6 months), 2 (12 months).

  • †P values are calculated for comparisons across the 3-month, 6-month and 12-month assessments using linear mixed models.

  • SF-36, 36-item Short-Form Health Survey.