Table 5

Multilevel multivariable models of asthma severity algorithm, respiratory illness and not attaining Key Stage 1 (at 6–7 years) (Bold numbers show differences in this table compared with the original published journal article)

Not attained / Total (%)Univariable
OR (95% CI)
Asthma severity algorithm 1
Multivariable*
OR (95% CI)
OR (95% CI)
Wheeze severity algorithm 2
Multivariable*
OR (95% CI)
N 15115/86 711 (17)
Asthma severity algorithm
No asthma (ref) 12892/75 870 (17)RefRefNA
Diagnosis only 135/539 (25) 1.57 (1.28 to 1.93) 1.22 (0.98 to 1.52)NA
Intermittent bronchodilator 451/2333 (19)1.11 (1.00 to 1.24) 0.90 (0.80 to 1.01)NA
Persistent Mild 1270/6298 (20)1.21 (1.13 to 1.29)0.96 (0.89 to 1.04)NA
Persistent moderate 301/1372 (22)1.36 (1.19 to 1.55)1.05 (0.90 to 1.23)NA
Persistent severe66/299 (22)1.45 (1.09 to 1.92)1.02 (0.75 to 1.40)NA
Hospital inpatient admission (asthma severity algorithm)†=yes(%) 846/3513 (24)1.48 (1.36 to 1.61) 1.15 (1.03 to 1.28)NA
Wheeze severity algorithm
No asthma (ref) 11388/68 143 (17)RefNAref
Diagnosis only 457/2263 (20)1.24 (1.11 to 1.39)NA1.06 (0.94 to 1.19)
Intermittent bronchodilator 1291/6535 (20)1.20 (1.12 to 1.28)NA1.01 (0.94 to 1.09)
Persistent mild 1597/8031 (20) 1.21 (1.14 to 1.29)NA 0.97 (0.90 to 1.04)
Persistent moderate 309/1414 (22) 1.38 (1.20 to 1.57)NA 1.06 (0.91 to 1.23)
Persistent severe73/325 (23) 1.52 (1.16 to 2.00)NA1.08 (0.81 to 1.45)
Hospital inpatient admission (wheeze severity algorithm)†=yes(%) 1129/4715 (24)1.48 (1.38 to 1.59)NA1.14 (1.04 to 1.25)
LRTI‡ GP contacts§ (ref=None)
1 2758/15 886 (17)1.05 (1.00 to 1.10)1.01 (0.96 to 1.07)1.01 (0.96 to 1.06)
2 1270/6847 (19)1.14 (1.06 to 1.22)1.05 (0.98 to 1.13) 1.05 (0.98 to 1.13)
3+ 1431/6771 (21)1.33 (1.24 to 1.42) 1.15 (1.07 to 1.24) 1.15 (1.06 to 1.23)
URTI¶ GP contacts (ref=None)
1–4 7809/45 535 (17)0.98 (0.93 to 1.02)1.00 (0.96 to 1.05)1.00 (0.96 to 1.05)
5–6 1496/8702 (17) 0.99 (0.93 to 1.07) 1.02 (0.95 to 1.10)1.01 (0.95 to 1.10)
7+ 1853/9832 (19) 1.09 (1.02 to 1.17) 1.09 (1.01 to 1.17)1.08 (1.00 to 1.16)
GP contacts
Influenza and pneumonia 1+
(ref=None)
441/2616 (17)0.96 (0.86 to 1.07)NANA
Bronchiolitis 1+ (ref=None) 896/4258 (21)1.26 (1.17 to 1.37) 1.02 (0.94 to 1.11) 1.01 (0.93 to 1.10)
Chronic lower respiratory disease 1+ (ref=None) 158/635 (25) 1.41 (1.16 to 1.70) 1.16 (0.95 to 1.42) 1.16 (0.95 to 1.42)
Respiratory unknown 1+
(ref=None)
70/477 (15) 0.76 (0.58 to 1.00)NANA
Chronic upper respiratory disease GP contacts (ref=None)
1 924/5417 (17)0.98 (0.91 to 1.06)NANA
2+ 310/1799 (17)1.02 (0.90 to 1.16)NANA
Croup GP contacts (ref=None)
1 890/5284 (17)0.98 (0.91 to 1.06)NANA
2+ 266/1439 (19)1.14 (0.99 to 1.31)NANA
Townsend deprivation quintile
1 - least (ref) 1533/15 421 (10)refRefRef
2 2307/16 801 (14) 1.28 (1.18 to 1.38) 1.18 (1.09 to 1.28) 1.18 (1.09 to 1.27)
3 2980/17 455 (17) 1.54 (1.43 to 1.66) 1.32 (1.22 to 1.43) 1.32 (1.22 to 1.43)
4 3523/17 996 (20)1.84 (1.71 to 1.98) 1.47 (1.36 to 1.58) 1.47 (1.36 to 1.58)
5 – most 4730/18 778 (25)2.32 (2.16 to 2.49) 1.63 (1.51 to 1.76) 1.63 (1.51 to 1.76)
  • *adjusted for all variables in the table significant at the 5% level in univariable analyses, sex, gestation at birth, small for gestational age (<10th centile), parity, major or minor congenital anomalies, maternal age (25–29 years,<18, 18–24, 30–34, 35+), breastfeeding at birth or 6–8 weeks, maternal smoking in first trimester, free school meals eligible in year preceding Key Stage one assessment proxy start date first May to approximate deprivation beyond birth, academic season of birth (autumn, spring, summer), school moves from start school to KS1 (1+), urban or rural (inc. town) dwelling at birth, year take Key Stage 1 (ref 2010).

  • †Excludes first admission if before first GP visit; c Lower respiratory tract infection.

  • ‡Lower respiratory tract infection.

  • §Includes bronchiolitis if coded with bronchitis.

  • ¶Upper respiratory tract infection.