Table 1

Clinical details of participants

Non-smokersSmokersCOPD-ICSCOPD-no ICS
No (n) of successful high-proliferative ECFC isolations1167 (2 samples from one patient, 8 ECFC samples in total)
(2 moderate; 5 severe)*
6 (1 mild; 4 moderate, 1 severe)*
Sex (M/F)6/54/25/23/3
Age (years)56±357±468.86±4.525†68.67±3.818
Smoking (pack-years)031±1043.14±23.81
(4 ex-smokers)
(4 ex-smokers)
% predicted
FEV1/FVC, %predicted
ICS007 (2 budesonide; 3 fluticasone propionate;
2 beclomethasone)
Long beta-agonists005 (2 formoterol; 3 salmeterol)1 olodaterol hydrochloride
Long-/short-acting muscarinic antagonists003 tiotropium bromide2 ipratropium bromide
1 tiotropium bromide
Statins01 simvastatin1 atorvastatin1 simvastatin
  • Eighteen healthy non-smokers, eleven smokers with normal lung function and twenty-two patients with COPD (3 mild, 12 moderate, 7 severe) were recruited in the study (details in online supplemental material and reference3 and ECFC were isolated from blood samples as described.3 All individuals were free from significant cardiac, renal, haematological or other major disorders. Values are expressed as means±SD.

  • FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio are postbronchodilator for subjects with COPD, smokers or non-smokers.

  • *Staging of COPD is according to the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria.

  • †P=0.0366 (comparison between non-smokers and COPD-ICS);

  • ‡P<0.0029 (comparison between non-smokers and COPD-ICS);

  • §P<0.0056 (comparison between smokers and COPD-ICS);

  • ¶P=0.0019 (comparison between non-smokers and COPD-ICS);

  • **P=0.0365 (comparison between smokers vs COPD-ICS); Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn’s multiple comparison test.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; F, female; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC, forced vital capacity; ICS, inhaled corticosteroids; M, male; pack-years, number of packs cigarettes smoked per day multiplied by the number of years of smoking.