Table 2

Baseline characteristics, stratified by first chronological deterioration category through which they met the composite 4C Deterioration primary outcome (HDU admission, ICU admission or ventilatory support, or death)

CharacteristicOverall,
N=76 588*
Ventilatory support or HDU/ICU,
N=14 771*
Died,
N=12 581*
No deterioration,
N=45 726*
(Missing),
N=3510*
Age (years)72 (57–83)65 (54–75)84 (77–89)70 (54–82)75 (60–84)
 Missing27 (<0.1)4 (<0.1)5 (<0.1)7 (<0.1)11 (<0.1)
Sex
 Female35 231 (46)5307 (36)5533 (44)22 717 (50)1674 (48)
 Male41 250 (54)9447 (64)7028 (56)22 955 (50)1820 (52)
 Missing107 (0.1)17 (0.1)20 (0.2)54 (0.1)16 (0.5)
Ethnicity
 White56 578 (85)10 063 (78)10 291 (92)33 567 (84)2657 (90)
 South Asian4098 (6.1)1179 (9.2)294 (2.6)2565 (6.4)60 (2.0)
 Black1536 (2.3)389 (3.0)95 (0.9)1005 (2.5)47 (1.6)
 East Asian337 (0.5)105 (0.8)32 (0.3)188 (0.5)12 (0.4)
 Other4257 (6.4)1108 (8.6)423 (3.8)2565 (6.4)161 (5.5)
 Missing9782 (13)1927 (13)1446 (11)5836 (13)573 (16)
SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive69 260 (99)13 226 (99)11 642 (99)41 935 (99)2457 (99)
 Missing6841 (8.9)1432 (9.7)873 (6.9)3502 (7.7)1034 (29)
Number of comorbidities1 (0–2)1 (0–2)2 (1–3)1 (0–2)1 (0–2)
 One or more comorbidities52 704 (73)10 118 (71)10 865 (91)30 102 (68)1619 (46)
 Missing3985 (5.2)478 (3.2)621 (4.9)1674 (3.7)1212 (35)
Nosocomial infection9603 (13)553 (3.8)2489 (20)6088 (14)473 (16)
 Missing1973 (2.6)132 (0.9)329 (2.6)1027 (2.2)485 (14)
Radiographic infiltrates26 079 (64)8320 (81)3563 (59)13 485 (58)711 (54)
 Missing35 735 (46)4533 (31)6569 (52)22 450 (49)2183 (62)
Respiratory rate (per min)20 (18–24)24 (20–30)20 (18–24)20 (18–23)20 (18–23)
 Missing6535 (8.5)760 (5.1)962 (7.6)34311382 (39)
 SpO2 (%)96 (93–97)94 (89–96)96 (93–97)96 (94–98)96 (94–97)
 SpO2 <94%18 897 (27)6672 (48)3324 (24)8373 (74)528 (3.9)
 Missing6401 (8.4)763 (5.1)964 (7.7)3405 (7.4)1269 (36)
Room air or oxygen
 Room air47 061 (68)5885 (42)7810 (68)31 831 (76)1535 (70)
 Oxygen22 384 (32)8018 (58)3655 (32)10 038 (24)673 (30)
 Missing7143 (9.3)868 (5.9)1116 (8.9)3857 (8.4)1302 (37)
Glasgow Coma Scale15 (15–15)15 (15–15)15 (15–15)15 (15–15)15 (15–15)
 Missing6332 (8.2)873 (5.9)1189 (9.5)2780 (6.1)1490 (42)
Lymphocytes (x10ˆ9 /L)0.90 (0.60–1.30)0.80 (0.56–1.10)0.80 (0.50–1.18)0.98 (0.70–1.40)0.90 (0.60–1.27)
 Missing16 087 (21)1448 (11)3073 (24)10 778 (23.6)788 (22)
Urea (mmol/L)6.6 (4.6–9.9)6.9 (4.9–10.3)9.7 (6.6–15.1)5.9 (4.3–8.6)6.5 (4.6–9.7)
 Missing20 552 (27)2403 (16)3701 (29)13 405 (29)1043
C reactive protein (mg/L)69 (27–133)109 (57–181)76 (34–142)55 (20–110)57 (22–114)
 Missing21 543 (28)2262 (15)3863 (31)14 320 (31)1098
NHS region
 East of England9507 (12)1446 (9.8)1819 (14)5132 (11)1110 (32)
 London3886 (5.1)1272 (8.6)306 (2.4)2184 (4.8)124 (3.5)
 Midlands17 988 (23)3043 (21)3100 (25)11 333 (25)512 (15)
 North East and Yorkshire12 081 (16)2465 (17)1845 (15)7520 (16)251 (7.2)
 Northern Ireland31 (<0.1)17 (0.1)1 (<0.1)13 (<0.1)0 (0)
 North West13 731 (18)2847 (19)2321 (18)8120 (18)443 (13)
 Scotland1558 (2.0)340 (2.3)205 (1.6)916 (2.0)97 (2.8)
 South East9530 (12)1903 (13)1619 (13)5672 (12)336 (9.6)
 South West6485 (8.5)1079 (7.3)991 (7.9)3788 (8.3)627 (18)
 Wales1791 (2.3)359 (2.4)374 (3.0)1048 (2.3)10 (0.3)
Oxygen received49 894 (69)14 277 (98)9777 (81)24 859 (56)981 (79)
 Missing4249 (5.6)176 (1.2)546 (4.3)1264 (2.8)2263
Systemic steroids received38 417 (54)11 769 (84)6765 (57)19 617 (44)266 (47)
 Missing5944 (7.8)684 (4.6)686 (5.5)1636 (3.6)2938
Deterioration27 352 (37)14 771 (100)12 581 (100)0 (0)0 (0)
 Missing3510 (4.6)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)3510
Mortality18 211 (25)5630 (40)12 581 (100)0 (0)0 (0)
 Missing4107 (5.4)597 (4.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)3510
Length of stay (days)10 (5–19)12 (7–21)13 (6–22)8 (4–17)7 (1–23)
 Missing6888 (9.0)1170 (7.9)358 (2.8)1867 (4.1)3493
  • Data are median (IQR) or n (%), calculated from non-missing data. Participants are shown by the first chronological deterioration category through which they met the composite primary outcome (HDU or ICU admission, ventilatory support or death).

  • *Statistics presented: median (IQR); n (%).

  • HDU, high-dependency unit; ICU, intensive care unit; NHS, National Health Service.;