Table 1

Patient characteristics of the matched case and control groups

CharacteristicsCases (n=1541)Controls (n=5677)SMD
n%n%
Age, years
 ≤1000.000.00.005
 11–2010.130.1−0.003
 21–3020.180.10.017
 31–4080.5230.40.048
 41–50382.51011.80.024
 51–601378.94678.2−0.027
 61–7044729.0171730.20.061
 71–8064742.0221539.7−0.073
 81–9024816.1107118.9−0.042
 ≥91150.8721.3
Sex0.010
 Male107970.0400070.5
 Female46230.0167729.5
Fiscal year
 2010926.03305.80.009
 201118311.970112.3−0.014
 201229319.0106918.80.005
 201331220.3108719.20.028
 201430719.9142025.00.112
 201535322.9107018.90.100
Activities of daily living (Barthel index)
 95–10081953.1305153.7−0.012
 0–9050933.0195134.4−0.028
 Missing21313.867511.90.058
Brinkman index
 0–19971246.2360663.5−0.353
 200–59916410.64838.50.073
 ≥60050432.7103618.30.336
 Missing16110.55529.70.024
Body mass index, kg/m2
 <18.5024716.0123321.7−0.146
 18.50–24.99100565.2313255.20.206
 ≥25.0021213.896417.0−0.089
 Missing775.03486.1−0.049
Charlson Comorbidity Index
 0–298363.8431276.0−0.268
 3–51056.83566.30.022
 ≥645329.4100917.80.278
 Cancer
Lung cancer55536.0172530.40.120
 Other cancer48131.2151426.70.100
ICU admission within 2 days of hospitalisation553.62614.6−0.052
Mechanical ventilation within 2 days of hospitalisation744.82193.90.046
  • ICU, intensive care unit; SMD, standardised mean difference.