Table 5

Independent risk factors for test-confirmed COVID-19: final multivariable model (n=14 556)

CharacteristicCategoriesFully adjusted OR (95% CI)*P for trendEest (ECI)
Age, years16–29.991.000.08
30–39.991.20 (0.68 to 2.12)
40–49.991.20 (0.69 to 2.10)
50–59.991.12 (0.65 to 1.93)
60–69.990.80 (0.44 to 1.44)
≥70.000.74 (0.39 to 1.41)
SexFemale1.00
Male0.97 (0.76 to 1.23)
EthnicityAsian/Asian British2.28 (1.33 to 3.91)3.99 (1.99)
Black/African/Caribbean/black British1.84 (0.70 to 4.82)
Mixed/multiple/other ethnic groups1.53 (0.92 to 2.53)
White1.00
Highest educational level attainedPrimary/secondary1.000.08
Higher/further (A levels)0.90 (0.61 to 1.33)
College0.82 (0.58 to 1.15)
Postgraduate0.74 (0.51 to 1.07)
Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) rank, quartilesQ1 (most deprived)1.11 (0.84 to 1.48)0.44
Q20.90 (0.67 to 1.20)
Q30.87 (0.65 to 1.16)
Q4 (least deprived)1.00
HousingOwns own home1.00
Mortgage1.19 (0.91 to 1.56)
Privately renting0.96 (0.63 to 1.46)
Renting from council0.96 (0.53 to 1.74)
Others1.34 (0.81 to 2.21)
Number of people per bedroom†≤0.501.00<0.001
>0.50–0.991.24 (0.93 to 1.66)
1.00–1.991.67 (1.25 to 2.23)2.73 (1.81)
≥2.002.04 (1.15 to 3.60)3.52 (1.43)
Schoolchildren (aged 5–15 years) at home with participantNo1.00
Yes1.16 (0.86 to 1.56)
Dog at homeNo1.00
Yes1.17 (0.93 to 1.47)
ShieldingNo1.00
Yes1.04 (0.64 to 1.68)
Any visits to/from other households in week prior to questionnaire completionNo1.00
Yes1.31 (1.06 to 1.62)1.95 (1.31)
Number of visits to shops and other indoor public places in week prior to questionnaire completion‡Q11.00<0.001
Q21.96 (1.29 to 2.98)3.33 (1.90)
Q32.21 (1.43 to 3.43)3.84 (2.21)
Q42.63 (1.69 to 4.10)4.70 (2.77)
Travel to work/study in week prior to questionnaire completionNo1.00
Yes1.36 (0.93 to 1.99)
Not currently working or studying1.27 (0.82 to 1.95)
Frontline workerNo1.00
Health or social care worker1.35 (1.00 to 1.82)2.04 (1.02)
Other frontline worker1.49 (1.12 to 1.98)2.34 (1.49)
Number of portions of fruit, vegetables and salad intake per day in week prior to questionnaire completion, quartilesQ11.000.31
Q21.00 (0.75 to 1.35)
Q31.04 (0.74 to 1.45)
Q40.86 (0.63 to 1.19)
Taking vitamin D supplementNo1.00
Yes0.93 (0.75 to 1.16)
Hours of lower impact physical activity in week prior to questionnaire completion§01.000.22
11.01 (0.78 to 1.31)
≥20.83 (0.63 to 1.09)
Estimated average hours of sleep per night in month prior to questionnaire completion¶≤61.14 (0.79 to 1.65)0.31**
71.14 (0.88 to 1.48)
81.00
≥91.29 (1.01 to 1.66)1.90 (1.11)
Alcohol consumption in week prior to questionnaire completion, unitsNone1.000.39
1–71.11 (0.85 to 1.44)
8–141.08 (0.79 to 1.47)
15–211.45 (1.01 to 2.08)
22–281.23 (0.72 to 2.11)
>280.83 (0.43 to 1.60)
Body mass index, kg/m2 <251.000.004
25–301.50 (1.19 to 1.89)2.37 (1.67)
>301.39 (1.06 to 1.84)2.13 (1.31)
AsthmaNo1.00
Yes0.82 (0.55 to 1.24)
Atopic disease††No1.00
Yes0.75 (0.59 to 0.97)2.00 (1.21)
Periodontitis‡‡No1.00
Yes1.20 (0.95 to 1.52)
Missing1.03 (0.77 to 1.37)
Systemic immunosuppressantsNo1.00
Yes0.47 (0.22 to 0.99)3.68 (1.11)
Inhaled corticosteroidsNo1.00
Yes1.01 (0.55 to 1.84)
Inhaled bronchodilators§§No1.00
Yes1.07 (0.61 to 1.88)
BCG-vaccinatedNo1.00
Yes1.38 (0.97 to 1.96)
Unsure1.24 (0.78 to 1.99)
Duration of participation, days1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)
Swab test frequency1.62 (1.52 to 1.72)
  • *Adjusted for age, sex, duration of participation, test frequency, ethnicity, highest educational level attained, IMD rank, hours of sleep per night, housing, number of people per bedroom, presence of schoolchildren at home, dog at home, shielding, visits to/from other households, visits to shops and other indoor places, travel to work or study, frontline worker status, fruit, vegetable and salad intake, supplemental vitamin D intake, low-impact physical activity, alcohol intake, body mass index, history of asthma, history of atopic disease, use of systemic immunosuppressants, use of inhaled corticosteroids, use of inhaled bronchodilators and BCG vaccination status.

  • †Adjusted OR per additional 0.5 people per bedroom 1.26 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.43).

  • ‡Adjusted OR per extra visit per week 1.05 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.09).

  • §Defined as exercise to improve flexibility or core strength such as yoga, tai chi or Pilates, reported to the nearest hour.

  • ¶Reported to the nearest hour.

  • **Only applies to sleeping categories below 8 hours.

  • ††Defined by atopic eczema/dermatitis and/or hayfever/allergic rhinitis.

  • ‡‡Defined as being present if participant answered ‘yes’ to any of the three questions relating to gum disease/dental health listed in online supplemental table 2.

  • §§Defined as β-2 adrenoceptor agonists or anticholinergics.

  • ECI, E-value for 95% CI; Eest, E-value for point estimate.