Table 2

Sociodemographic, occupational and lifestyle factors and risk of test-confirmed COVID-19: crude and minimally adjusted ORs

Number (%) with incident test-confirmed COVID-19Total numberCrude OR (95% CI)Minimally adjusted OR (95% CI)*
Age, years16–29.9926 (4.5)15 2271.001.00
30–39.9947 (4.8)1.06 (0.65 to 1.73)1.08 (0.65 to 1.78)
40–49.9994 (5.3)1.17 (0.75 to 1.83)1.24 (0.79 to 1.95)
50–59.99135 (4.0)0.89 (0.58 to 1.36)0.96 (0.62 to 1.49)
60–69.9997 (1.9)0.41 (0.26 to 0.64) 0.49 (0.31 to 0.77)
≥70.0047 (1.4)0.30 (0.18 to 0.48) 0.39 (0.24 to 0.64)
SexFemale329 (3.1)15 2271.001.00
Male117 (2.5)0.82 (0.66 to 1.01)1.08 (0.86 to 1.34)
EthnicityAsian/Asian British18 (6.4)15 2272.39 (1.46 to 3.88) 1.99 (1.20 to 3.30)
Black/African/Caribbean/black British6 (6.3)2.32 (1.01 to 5.34)1.98 (0.84 to 4.65)
Mixed/multiple/other ethnic groups19 (4.7)1.73 (1.08 to 2.78)1.40 (0.86 to 2.28)
White403 (2.8)1.001.00
Highest educational level attainedPrimary/secondary51 (3.1)15 2121.001.00
Higher/further (A levels)69 (3.1)1.00 (0.69 to 1.44)0.86 (0.59 to 1.25)
College197 (2.9)0.95 (0.69 to 1.29) 0.75 (0.54 to 1.03)
Postgraduate129 (2.8)0.90 (0.65 to 1.25) 0.62 (0.44 to 0.87)
Index of Multiple Deprivation rank, quartilesQ1 (most deprived)131 (3.6)15 1521.30 (1.01 to 1.69)1.22 (0.93 to 1.60)
Q2108 (2.8)1.02 (0.78 to 1.34)0.97 (0.73 to 1.28)
Q397 (2.5)0.90 (0.68 to 1.19)0.89 (0.67 to 1.19)
Q4 (least deprived)107 (2.8)1.001.00
Household income sufficient for basic needsYes416 (2.9)15 2251.001.00
Mostly/sometimes/no30 (3.0)1.01 (0.69 to 1.47)0.85 (0.58 to 1.25)
Claiming universal creditNo425 (2.9)15 1781.001.00
Yes19 (4.7)1.65 (1.03 to 2.64)1.25 (0.77 to 2.03)
HousingOwns own home189 (2.0)15 2251.001.00
Mortgage173 (4.6)2.34 (1.90 to 2.89) 1.34 (1.04 to 1.74)
Privately renting40 (3.7)1.88 (1.33 to 2.66)1.17 (0.79 to 1.73)
Renting from council16 (3.4)1.68 (1.00 to 2.82)1.20 (0.70 to 2.07)
Others28 (4.6)2.33 (1.55 to 3.49) 1.54 (0.95 to 2.49)
Frontline workerNo276 (2.2)15 2131.001.00
Health or social care worker90 (7.7)3.69 (2.89 to 4.72) 1.68 (1.28 to 2.21)
Other frontline worker80 (5.1)2.37 (1.84 to 3.06) 1.85 (1.42 to 2.42)
ShieldingNo423 (3.0)15 1711.001.00
Yes23 (2.0)0.64 (0.42 to 0.98) 0.63 (0.41 to 0.97)
Number of people per bedroom≥0.5098 (1.7)15 1141.001.00
>0.50–0.99110 (2.6)1.58 (1.20 to 2.08) 1.34 (1.01 to 1.78)
1–1.99213 (4.5)2.74 (2.15 to 3.49) 1.91 (1.46 to 2.50)
≥2.0019 (5.7)3.54 (2.14 to 5.87) 2.41 (1.40 to 4.13)
Any visits to/from other households in week prior to questionnaire completionNo202 (2.7)15 2171.001.00
Yes244 (3.2)1.21 (1.00 to 1.46) 1.46 (1.19 to 1.80)
Preschool children (0–4 years old) at home with participantNo416 (2.8)15 1911.001.00
Yes30 (5.9)2.15 (1.47 to 3.15)1.19 (0.77 to 1.84)
Schoolchildren (5–15 years old) at home with participantNo351 (2.6)15 1821.001.00
Yes95 (5.5)2.18 (1.73 to 2.75) 1.42 (1.08 to 1.87)
Working-age adult (16–64 years old) at home with participantNo117 (1.6)15 1831.001.00
Yes329 (4.2)2.74 (2.21 to 3.39) 1.86 (1.45 to 2.41)
Number of different generations in householdLiving alone46 (1.6)15 2271.001.00
Single generation230 (2.8)1.78 (1.29 to 2.45) 1.66 (1.19 to 2.30)
Two generations164 (4.1)2.62 (1.88 to 3.64) 2.08 (1.48 to 2.94)
Three generations6 (5.0)3.27 (1.37 to 7.83) 2.54 (1.04 to 6.23)
Cat at homeNo344 (2.9)15 2151.001.00
Yes102 (3.1)1.06 (0.85 to 1.33)0.88 (0.70 to 1.12)
Dog at homeNo317 (2.7)15 2151.001.00
Yes129 (3.6)1.33 (1.08 to 1.64) 1.21 (0.97 to 1.50)
Number of public transport journeys in week prior to questionnaire completion0393 (2.9)15 1751.001.00
1–535 (3.0)1.02 (0.72 to 1.45)1.12 (0.78 to 1.61)
≥617 (3.7)1.29 (0.79 to 2.12)1.37 (0.82 to 2.28)
Travel to work/study in week prior to questionnaire completionNo37 (2.5)15 0421.001.00
Yes318 (3.8)1.54 (1.09 to 2.18) 1.71 (1.20 to 2.44)
Not currently working or studying88 (1.7)0.68 (0.46 to 1.00)1.20 (0.79 to 1.81)
Number of visits to shops and other indoor public places in week prior to questionnaire completion, quartilesQ133 (1.5)15 2071.001.00
Q2151 (3.0)2.05 (1.40 to 2.99) 2.23 (1.51 to 3.29)
Q3118 (3.3)2.25 (1.52 to 3.32) 2.77 (1.85 to 4.14)
Q4144 (3.2)2.16 (1.48 to 3.17) 3.38 (2.25 to 5.07)
Tobacco smoking statusNever smoker247 (2.9)15 2271.001.00
Ex-smoker165 (2.8)0.97 (0.80 to 1.19)1.09 (0.89 to 1.35)
Current smoker34 (4.1)1.42 (0.99 to 2.05)1.24 (0.85 to 1.82)
Regular exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home or in carNo433 (2.9)15 2261.001.00
Yes13 (3.9)1.35 (0.77 to 2.37)1.17 (0.66 to 2.09)
Vaping statusNever vaper410 (2.9)15 1851.001.00
Ex-vaper16 (3.2)1.12 (0.67 to 1.86)0.89 (0.53 to 1.50)
Current vaper19 (4.0)1.40 (0.88 to 2.24)1.04 (0.64 to 1.69)
Alcohol consumption in week prior to questionnaire completion, unitsNone119 (2.8)15 2251.001.00
1–7162 (3.0)1.08 (0.85 to 1.37)1.08 (0.85 to 1.38)
8–1485 (2.9)1.03 (0.78 to 1.37)1.07 (0.80 to 1.43)
15–2151 (3.6)1.30 (0.93 to 1.82) 1.40 (0.99 to 1.98)
22–2817 (2.6)0.93 (0.55 to 1.55)1.10 (0.65 to 1.87)
>2812 (2.3)0.84 (0.46 to 1.52)0.95 (0.52 to 1.76)
Hours of vigorous physical exercise in week prior to questionnaire completion†0171 (2.9)15 1761.001.00
1–3163 (2.9)0.98 (0.79 to 1.22)0.95 (0.75 to 1.18)
≥4109 (2.9)0.99 (0.78 to 1.27)1.03 (0.80 to 1.32)
Hours of light physical exercise in week prior to questionnaire completion‡0–4189 (3.6)15 1921.001.00
5–9140 (2.8)0.76 (0.61 to 0.95)0.87 (0.69 to 1.10)
≥10117 (2.4)0.64 (0.51 to 0.81)0.89 (0.70 to 1.14)
Hours of lower impact physical activity in week prior to questionnaire completion§0274 (3.1)15 1761.001.00
188 (3.1)0.97 (0.76 to 1.24)0.90 (0.70 to 1.16)
≥283 (2.3)0.73 (0.57 to 0.94) 0.76 (0.59 to 0.98)
Estimated average hours of sleep per night in month prior to questionnaire completion¶≤641 (3.1)15 2231.22 (0.86 to 1.73)1.15 (0.80 to 1.64)
7113 (3.1)1.20 (0.94 to 1.53) 1.24 (0.97 to 1.59)
8159 (2.6)1.001.00
≥9133 (3.3)1.28 (1.02 to 1.62) 1.26 (0.99 to 1.60)
  • Minimally adjusted ORs (95% CI) with a p value of <0.10 are emboldened.

  • *Adjusted for age, sex, duration of participation and test frequency.

  • †Defined as exercise of sufficient intensity to make the participant breathless or to raise their heart rate significantly, such as heavy physical work, strenuous gardening (eg, vigorous digging, landscaping), swimming, jogging, aerobics, football, tennis, cycling and gym workout, reported to the nearest hour.

  • ‡Defined as exercise that did not make the participant breathless, such as light gardening, walking, including walking for pleasure or exercise, walking to the shops and walking to work, reported to the nearest hour.

  • §Defined as exercise to improve flexibility or core strength such as yoga, tai chi or Pilates, reported to the nearest hour.

  • ¶Reported to the nearest hour.