Table 1

Immunotherapy infections due to immunosuppression

AuthorsStudy typesICI classImmunosuppressive agentsPathogen
Arriola et al, Del Castillo et al, Schwarz et al, Liu et al, Si et al25 31–34Case report, cohortCTLA-4, PD-1, PD-L1Corticosteroids, TNF-α antagonists, mycophenolate mofetilPneumocystis jirovecii
Lord et al, Kyi et al, Del Castillo et al, Gupta et al, Oltolini et al, Liu et al, Malek et al, Taima et al25–31 128Case report, cohortCTLA-4, PD-1, PD-L1Corticosteroids, TNF-α antagonists, rituximab, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, rapamycinAspergillus fumigatus
Del Castillo et al, Liu et al25 31Case report, cohortCTLA-4, PD-1, PD-L1Corticosteroids, TNF-α antagonistsCandida albicans
Uslu et al, Del Castillo et al, Furuta et al, Guengen et al, Oltolini et al, Schwarz et al, Liu et al25 31 33 36–38Case report, cohortCTLA-4, PD-1Corticosteroids, TNF-α antagonists, Mycophenolate mofetilCytomegalovirus
Martinot et al35Case report, unpublished pharmacovigilance registry data (WHO and Eudra-Vigilance)CTLA-4
(PD-1 registry data)
CorticosteroidsJC polyoma virus
Del Castillo et al, Oltolini et al, Lee et al, Liu et al25 31 39Case report, cohortCTLA-4, PD-1, PD-L1Corticosteroids, TNF-α antagonistsOther bacteria including non-specified organism, bacteraemic sepsis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Corynebacterium striatu, Campylobacter
  • CTLA-4, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4; ICI, immune checkpoint inhibitor; PD-1, programmed cell death protein 1.