Table 1

Physical outcomes* of survivors of COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome

3 months (n=98)6 months (n=77)12 months (n=51)P value†
Body mass index, median (IQR)27 (24–30)28 (26–30)28 (26–31)0.959
Body mass index gain‡, median (IQR)−0.7 (−2.1 to 0.6)−0.4 (−1.7 to 2.6)0.4 (−1.1 to 0.9)
Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form (MNA-SF)<0.01
 Median (IQR)13 (11–14)14 (13–14)14 (13–14)
 Risk of malnutrition or being malnourished (MNA-SF <12) (%)31 (32)10 (14)5 (9.8)
Global muscle strength using Medical Research Council Sum Score (MRCss)>0.99
 Median (IQR)60 (60–60)60 (60–60)60 (60–60)
 Abnormal value (MRCss <48), n (%)3 (3)1 (1)1 (2)
 Dominant handgrip strength (kg), median (IQR)29 (23-34)32 (24–41)37 (28–42)<0.01
 Dominant handgrip strength (% predicted)‡70 (63–84)81 (71–93)85 (79–95)<0.01
 6 min walk test (m), median (IQR)420 (352–487)420 (385–480)420 (420–480)0.802
 6 min walk test (% predicted)†, median (IQR)80 (60–90)70 (70–80)80 (70–100)0.840
 6 min walk test, n (%) of abnormal test§33 (40)18 (42)17 (36)0.884
 Fatigue (Fatigue Severity Score), median (IQR)27 (15–41)27 (13–38)20 (13–39)0.113
 Fatigue (Fatigue Severity Score ≥36), n (%) of abnormal test31 (33)26 (34)13 (26)0.429
 Barthel Index, n (%) of patients dependent (<80)2 (2)1 (1)0 (0)0.094
Return to work, n (%) of patients0.010
 Full employment63 (64)49 (64)44 (86)
 Reduced effectiveness at work2 (2)5 (7)0 (0)
 No return to work30 (31)22 (22)7 (14)
  • *Unknown or missing data: body mass index: 2 (3 months), 1 (6 months), 0 (12 months); body mass index gain: 38 (3 months), 18 (6 months), 8 (12 months); MNA-SF: 1 (3 months), 0 (6 months), 0 (12 months); MRCss: 6 (3 months), 29 (6 months), 3 (12 months); handgrip strength: 32 (3 months), 31 (6 months), 21 (12 months); 6 min walk test: 11 (3 months), 34 (6 months), 4 (12 months); Fatigue Severity Score: 5 (3 months), 1 (6 months), 1 (12 months); Barthel Index: 1 (3 months), 0 (6 months), 0 (12 months); return to work: 3 (3 months), 6 (6 months), 0 (12 months).

  • †P values are calculated for comparisons across the 3-month, 6-month and 12-month assessments using linear mixed models for continuous variables or cumulative link mixed models for ordinal variables.

  • ‡Body mass index gain was calculated as the difference between the body mass index at follow-up and the body mass index at intensive care unit admission.

  • §Calculated using established reference values provided by Gilbertson et al10

  • ¶Predicted value for 6 min walk test was calculated according to Enright et al11