Table 1

Descriptive statistics for patients with COPD without evidence of HF, possible HF and newly diagnosed HF

COPD patients without evidence of HFCOPD patients with possible HFCOPD patients with diagnosed HFCOPD patients without evidence of HFCOPD patients with possible HFCOPD patients with diagnosed HF
Number of patients (N)60 04784762066 Exacerbation history* 1.52 (0–15)2.17 (0–13)2.70 (0–14)
Female 27 155 (45.2)4247 (50.1)743 (36.0) COPD medications*
SABA/SAMA37 990 (63.3)6222 (73.4)1489 (72.1)
Age, years (IQR)66 (59, 74)73 (66, 80)74 (67, 81)LABA alone1453 (2.4)250 (3.0)31 (1.5)
LAMA alone4744 (7.9)537 (6.3)163 (7.9)
Smoking status ICS alone5969 (9.9)947 (11.2)92 (4.5)
Current Smoker26 291 (43.8)2566 (30.3)497 (24.1)LABA+LAMA631 (1.1)81 (1.0)29 (1.4)
Former Smoker33 756 (56.2)5910 (69.7)1569 (75.9)LABA+ICS14 685 (24.5)2435 (28.7)476 (23.0)
LAMA+ICS1121 (1.9)206 (2.4)27 (1.3)
Body mass index Triple10 239 (17.1)1925 (22.7)823 (39.8)
Underweight (<18.5)3295 (5.49)356 (4.20)113 (5.47)No long-acting inhaler21 205 (35.3)2095 (24.7)425 (20.6)
Healthy weight (18.5–24.9)21 463 (35.7)2253 (26.6)640 (31.0)
Overweight (25.0–29.9)18 982 (31.6)2339 (27.6)595 (28.8) History of cardiovascular disease29 504 (49.1)6527 (77.0)1687 (81.7)
Obese (≥30)14 581 (24.3)3183 (37.6)667 (32.3)Atrial fibrillation2120 (3.5)999 (11.8)671 (32.5)
Missing data1726 (2.9)345 (4.1)51 (2.5)Hypertension24 759 (41.2)5474 (64.6)1033 (50.0)
Ischaemic heart disease7343 (12.2)2231 (26.3)838 (40.6)
Index of Multiple Deprivation Peripheral artery disease3023 (5.0)654 (7.7)222 (10.8)
1: Most deprived8581 (14.3)1144 (13.5)268 (13.0)Stroke3195 (5.3)788 (9.3)231 (11.2)
211 540 (19.2)1718 (20.3)403 (19.5)
311 698 (19.5)1613 (19.0)406 (19.7) Diabetes mellitus 5794 (9.7)1358 (16.0)459 (22.2)
413 978 (23.3)1972 (23.3)473 (22.9)
5: Least deprived14 250 (23.7)2029 (23.9)516 (25.0) CVD medications*
ACEi9789 (16.3)2446 (28.7)1230 (59.5)
GOLD Stage ARB3538 (5.9)900 (10.6)332 (16.1)
1: Mild23 860 (39.7)2998 (35.4)703 (34.0)Beta-blockers4491 (7.5)1007 (11.9)737 (35.7)
2: Moderate15 336 (25.5)1762 (20.8)486 (23.5)Calcium channel blockers5054 (8.4)1464 (17.3)329 (15.9)
3: Severe7767 (12.9)1449 (17.1)426 (20.6)MRA248 (0.4)276 (3.3)479 (23.2)
4: Very Severe1776 (3.0)401 (4.7)166 (8.0)Statins17 000 (28.3)3499 (41.3)1152 (55.8)
Missing11 308 (18.8)1866 (22.0)285 (13.8)Vasodilators3504 (5.8)1257 (14.8)320 (15.5)
  • Severity of airflow limitation using the GOLD guidelines.1

  • *At least two prescriptions >15 days apart in the year prior to the start of follow-up.

  • †Prior diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease, peripheral artery disease, atrial fibrillation, hypertension and/or stroke.

  • ‡Average number of exacerbations per patient (range) in the year prior to the start of follow-up.

  • ACEi, ACE inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blockers; BB, beta-blockers; CCB, calcium channel blockers; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; GOLD, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; HF, heart failure; ICS, inhaled corticosteroids; LABA, long-acting beta agonists; LAMA, long-acting muscarinic antagonists; MRA, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists; SABA, short-acting beta agonists; SAMA, short-acting muscarinic antagonists.