Table 2

Baseline characteristics and outcomes of the paediatric cohort

Baseline characteristicsVirus group (no. of healthcare episodes)P value*
SARS-CoV-2 (101)Influenza (871)RSV (2425)RV (1413)EV
(99)
PIV (359)MPV (454)sCoV (234)AdV (238)BoV (185)
Male sex55 (55)484 (56)1 362 (56)824 (58)57 (58)196 (55)267 (59)138 (59)141 (59)109 (59)0.80
Age at admission, median (IQR), years7 (1–12)2 (0–5)0 (0–1)1 (0–3)1 (0–3)1 (0–2)2 (0–3)1 (0–4)1 (1–3)1 (1–2)<0.001
Age categories, n (%)
 <125 (25)242 (28)1 673 (69)606 (43)44 (44)150 (42)135 (30)93 (40)52 (22)45 (24)<0.001
 1–420 (20)377 (43)689 (28)535 (38)38 (38)159 (44)242 (53)92 (39)151 (63)125 (68)<0.001
 5–1556 (55)252 (29)63 (3)272 (19)17 (17)50 (14)77 (17)49 (21)35 (15)15 (8)<0.001
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Prematurity and perinatal diseases†3 (3)61 (7)201 (8)168 (12)3 (3)45 (13)59 (13)36 (15)27 (11)25 (14)<0.001
 Chronic cardiac disease†2 (2)27 (3)41 (2)75 (5)3 (3)22 (6)24 (5)18 (8)10 (4)11 (6)<0.001
 Chronic respiratory disease†7 (7)170 (20)512 (21)414 (29)18 (18)101 (28)161 (35)70 (30)53 (22)63 (34)<0.001
 Congenital malformations and chromosomal abnormalities†7 (7)107 (12)220 (9)263 (19)10 (10)65 (18)106 (23)53 (23)38 (16)36 (19)<0.001
 Solid tumour†4 (4)16 (2)17 (1)64 (5)3 (3)10 (3)8 (2)13 (6)6 (3)6 (3)<0.001
 Haematological malignancy†3 (3)19 (2)15 (1)68 (5)1 (1)7 (2)12 (3)15 (6)3 (1)6 (3)<0.001
 Immunosuppression†10 (10)66 (8)57 (2)177 (13)5 (5)24 (7)29 (6)37 (16)20 (8)29 (16)<0.001
 Any of the comorbidities above†20 (20)198 (23)396 (16)494 (35)16 (16)110 (31)157 (35)100 (43)66 (28)68 (37)<0.001
Outcomes
Length of stay, median (IQR), days3 (1–8)3 (2–4)4 (2–6)3 (2–5)3 (2–5)3 (2–5)4 (2–6)3 (2–6)3 (2–4)3 (2–5)<0.001
Mortality, n (%)
 30 days‡1 (1)6 (1)3 (0)15 (1)0 (0)2 (1)0 (0)6 (3)2 (1)4 (2)<0.001
 90 days§1 (1)6 (1)4 (0)24 (2)0 (0)3 (1)2 (0)7 (3)4 (2)6 (3)<0.001
ICU
 ICU admitted, n (%)‡4 (4)32 (4)146 (6)61 (4)4 (4)21 (6)35 (8)19 (8)16 (7)16 (9)0.009
 Length of ICU stay, median (IQR), days§6 (4–6)1 (0–4)1 (0–3)1 (0–2)0 (0–0)0 (0–2)1 (0–4)1 (0–2)0 (0–1)1 (0–3)0.102
Acute kidney injury, n (%)‡8 (8)49 (6)43 (2)102 (7)3 (3)9 (3)20 (4)24 (10)12 (5)14 (8)<0.001
Hospital-onset bacteraemia, n (%)‡2 (2)11 (1)14 (1)29 (2)0 (0)3 (1)6 (1)9 (4)6 (3)2 (1)<0.001
  • *Comparison of all virus groups using χ2 test for nominal and Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables.

  • †Based on ICD-10 codes from −5 years to +24 hours from admission time point. See list of ICD-10 codes for each comorbidity category in online supplemental eTable 1.

  • ‡Analysis restricted to patients with a minimum of 30-day follow-up time, that is, patients admitted until 1 September 2020. SARS-CoV-2 (99), influenza (871), RSV (2 425), RV (1380), EV (98), PIV (359), MPV (454), sCoV (234), AdV (238) and BoV (184).

  • §Analysis restricted to patients with a minimum of 90-day follow-up time, that, patients admitted until 1 July 2020. SARS-CoV-2 (81), influenza (871), RSV (2425), RV (1356), EV (98), PIV (359), MPV (454), sCoV (234), AdV (238) and BoV (183).

  • ¶Analysis restricted to ICU-admitted patients. SARS-CoV-2 (4), influenza (32), RSV (146), RV (61), EV (4), PIV (21), MPV (35), sCoV (19), AdV (16) and BoV (16).

  • AdV, adenovirus; BoV, bocavirus; EV, enterovirus; ICU, intensive care unit; MPV, metapneumovirus; PIV, parainfluenzavirus; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; RV, rhinovirus; sCoV, seasonal coronaviruses.