Table 3

Outcomes for SARS-CoV-2 versus influenza, RSV and other viruses in the adult cohort

Outcome variableVirus group (no. of healthcare episodes)SARS-CoV-2 versus influenzaSARS-CoV-2 versus RSVSARS-CoV-2 vs other viruses
SARS-CoV-2 (1721)Influenza (2468)RSV (624)Other viruses (1508)Unadjusted ratio
(95% CI)
Adjusted ratio
(95% CI)*
Unadjusted ratio
(95% CI)
Adjusted ratio
(95% CI)*
Unadjusted ratio
(95% CI)
Adjusted ratio
(95% CI)*
Length of stay, median (IQR)†6 (3–11)4 (2–7)5 (3–9)4 (2–8)1.53
(1.43 to 1.64)
1.47
(1.37 to 1.58)
1.38
(1.25 to 1.53)
1.37
(1.22 to 1.53)
1.35
(1.25 to 1.46)
1.30
(1.19 to 1.41)
Mortality
 Days 0–30,
 n (%)§¶
216 (13)121 (5)45 (7)76 (5)2.73
(2.18 to 3.41)
4.43
(3.51 to 5.59)
1.83
(1.33 to 2.53)
3.81
(2.72 to 5.34)
2.62
(2.02 to 3.40)
3.46
(2.61 to 4.60)‡
 Days 0–90,
 n (%)§**
235 (15)192 (8)65 (10)148 (10)2.02
(1.67 to 2.44)‡
3.34
(2.73 to 4.08)‡
1.48
(1.13 to 1.95)‡
3.13
(2.34 to 4.18)‡
1.56
(1.27 to 1.92)‡
2.28
(1.82 to 2.86)‡
 Days 31–90,
 n (%)§††
24 (2)71 (3)20 (4)73 (5)0.57
(0.36 to 0.91)‡
0.98
(0.60 to 1.59)
0.50
(0.28 to 0.91)
1.14
(0.59 to 2.19)
0.33
(0.21 to 0.52)‡
0.62
(0.37 to 1.03)
Intensive care
 ICU admission,
 n (%)§¶
294 (17)244 (10)72 (12)167 (11)1.70
(1.43 to 2.01)‡
1.46
(1.22 to 1.75)‡
1.52
(1.18 to 1.97)‡
1.28
(0.96 to 1.69)‡
1.53
(1.27 to 1.85)‡
1.32
(1.07 to 1.64)‡
 ICU length of stay, median (IQR)†††4 (1–11)1 (0–3)1 (0–4)1 (0–4)2.17
(1.64 to 2.85)
2.24
(1.68 to 3.00)
2.48
(1.70 to 3.56)
1.99
(1.32 to 3.00)
3.22
(2.42 to 4.26)
2.80
(2.02 to 3.87)
 30-day mortality in ICU-admitted cohort,
 n (%)§††
77 (26)47 (19)18 (25)23 (14)1.42
(0.98 to 2.03)
2.40
(1.58 to 3.64)
1.04
(0.62 to 1.74)
2.87
(1.55 to 5.33)
2.07
(1.30 to 3.30)
3.75
(2.15 to 6.54)
Acute myocardial injury, n (%)§¶253 (15)250 (10)71 (11)151 (10)1.25
(1.05 to 1.49)‡
1.42
(1.18 to 1.71)‡
1.14
(0.88 to 1.49)‡
1.58
(1.19 to 2.09)‡
1.34
(1.09 to 1.63)‡
1.17
(0.94 to 1.46)‡
Acute kidney injury,
n (%)§¶
286 (17)333 (14)82 (13)228 (15)0.93
(0.80 to 1.09)
0.77
(0.65 to 0.91)‡
1.14
(0.89 to 1.46)‡
1.11
(0.85 to 1.45)‡
0.94
(0.79 to 1.11)
0.86
(0.70 to 1.05)‡
Pulmonary embolism,
n (%)‡‡§§
83 (5)32 (1)8 (1)35 (2)3.93
(2.63 to 6.01)
5.26
(3.34 to 8.28)
3.97
(2.03 to 8.96)
6.23
(2.82 to 13.76)
2.14
(1.45 to 3.24)
3.34
(2.06 to 5.40)
Hospital-onset bacteraemia,
n (%)§¶
92 (5)46 (2)16 (3)52 (3)1.86
(1.30 to 2.65)
1.43
(0.98 to 2.09)
1.55
(0.91 to 2.64)
1.27
(0.70 to 2.31)‡
1.14
(0.81 to 1.61)
1.10
(0.73 to 1.64)
  • Bold values indicate statistical significance.

  • *The regression models were adjusted for age, sex, BMI, diabetes, hypertension, chronic cardiac disease, chronic respiratory disease, chronic kidney disease, malignancy and immunosuppression.

  • †Analysed by a negative binomial regression model.

  • ‡Violation of proportional hazards assumption (Schoenfeld individual test, p value <0.05).

  • §Analysed by a Cox regression model.

  • ¶Analysis restricted to patients with a minimum of 30-day follow-up time, that is, patients admitted until 1 September 2020. SARS-CoV-2 (1692), influenza (2 468), RSV (624) and other viruses (1490).

  • **Analysis restricted to patients with a minimum of 90-day follow-up time, that is, patients admitted until 1 July 2020. SARS-CoV-2 (1 588), influenza (2 465), RSV (624) and other viruses (1478).

  • ††Analysis restricted to ICU-admitted patients. SARS-CoV-2 (294), influenza (244), RSV (72) and other viruses (167).

  • ‡‡Analysed by a logistic regression model.

  • §§Analysis restricted to the current healthcare episode, with only finished episodes included. SARS-CoV-2 (1719), influenza (2468), RSV (624) and other viruses (1508).

  • BMI, body mass index; ICU, intensive care unit; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus.