Table 1

Study subject characteristics

Baseline characteristicsIntervention (n=75)Control (n=75)P value
DemographicSex male/female (% male)53/22 (71%)57/18 (76%)0.46
Age (years)59.9±15.162.3±15.40.34
Body mass index (kg/m2)29.3±6.330.7±8.30.24
Pre-admission health and functionCharlson Comorbidity Score2.8±2.33.4±2.40.15
Physical activity (RAPA score)1 (IQR 1–3)2 (IQR 1–5)0.17
Level of independence (IAPA score)8 (IQR 7–8)8 (IQR 7–8)0.52
Current disease severitySepsis on admission (n, %)19 (25.3%)18 (24.0%)0.85
APACHE II22.1±5.222.2±7.70.91
SOFA score at enrolment8.8±2.68.8±3.20.89
Primary reason for admissionRespiratory failure (COPD, pneumonia)20 (27%)17 (23%)0.7
Isolated TBI16 (21%)10 (13%)0.28
Multiple trauma with TBI12 (16%)9 (12%)0.64
Multiple trauma without TBI2 (3%)5 (7%)0.44
Septic shock (non-respiratory)8 (11%)10 (13%)0.8
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest5 (7%)6 (8%)1
Haemorrhagic stroke (operated)2 (3%)6 (8%)0.28
Congestive heart failure2 (3%)4 (5%)0.68
Haemorrhagic shock, non-traumatic1 (1%)3 (4%)0.62
Meningitis, encephalitis2 (3%)2 (3%)1
Other diagnoses5 (7%)3 (4%)0.72
Time from admission to enrolment (hours)*31.5±19.030.8±17.40.80
  • CCS31; IAPA ranges 0–8 with higher number meaning higher functional independence32; RAPA score ranges from 1 ‘I almost never do any physical activities’ to 5 ‘I do 30 min or more per day of moderate physical activity 5 or more days per week’33.

  • *Intervention began next calendar day after enrolment.

  • APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; CCS, Charlson Comorbidity Score; IAPA, Instrumental Activities Of Daily Living Scale; RAPA, Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; TBI, traumatic brain injury.