Table 1

Patient demographics

Control
(N=56)
VA-LRTI
(N=52)
Age, yearsMedian (IQR)59 (47–67)59 (42–68)
MaleN (%)41 (73.2)31 (59.6)
Days on ICU*Median (IQR)9 (5–13)7 (5–10)
Admission typeMedical—N (%)32 (57.1)18 (34.6)
Emergency surgical—N (%)15 (26.8)16 (30.8)
Planned surgical—N (%)8 (14.3)18 (34.6)
Unscored—N (%)1 (1.8)0 0
TraumaN (%)13 (23.2)20 (38.5)
NeurosurgeryN (%)11 (19.6)16 (30.8)
COPDN (%)6 (10.7)8 (15.4)
ARDSN (%)4 (7.1)0 (0)
CPISMedian (IQR)5 (4–6)7 (5.8–7)
APACHE IIMedian (IQR)20 (15–23)17 (11–22)
Temperature, °CMedian (IQR)38 (37–39)38 (37–38)
WCC, 109/LMedian (IQR)15 (10–21)13 (12–18)
PaO2/FiO2, mm HgMedian (IQR)232 (156–270)240 (171–284)
Pmax, cmH2OMedian (IQR)20 (16–25)21 (16–24)
PEEP, cmH2OMedian (IQR)8 (5–10)7.5 (5–10)
Tidal volume, mLMedian (IQR)476 (417–550)487 (411–602)
Confirmed VA-LRTIVAP—N (%)41 (79)
VAT—N (%)11 (21)
Culture results†N (%)
Acinetobacter pittii1 (1.9)
Enterobacter cloacae2 (3.8)
Escherichia coli3 (5.8)
Haemophilus influenzae5 (9.6)
Klebsiella spp6 (11.5)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa9 (17.3)
Serratia marcescens2 (3.8)
Staphylococcus aureus15 (28.8)
Stenothrophomas maltophilia2 (3.8)
Other7 (13.4)
ICU LOS, daysMedian (IQR)22 (14–33)21 (15–32)
Hospital LOS, daysMedian (IQR)31 (15–44)30 (19–57)
ICU mortalityN (%)17 (30.4)9 (17.3)
  • Continuous variables are expressed as median (25th–75th percentile); categorical variables as number of patients (percentage).

  • *Days on ICU until VA-LRTI suspicion.

  • †Potentially >1 cultured pathogen per patient.

  • ‡All methicillin sensitive.

  • APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; CPIS, Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score; FiO2, inspired fraction of oxygen ratio; ICU, intensive care unit; LOS, length of stay; PEEP, positive end-expiratory pressure; Pmax, maximum airway pressure; VA-LRTI, ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infection; VAP, ventilator-associated pneumonia; VAT, ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis; WCC, white cell count.