Table 2

Non-invasive ventilatory strategies

InterventionStandard care: non-invasive ventilatory strategies
Confirmed or suspected COVID-19*Non-COVID-19 ARDS†
Trial of therapy if immediate invasive mechanical ventilation not requiredNHFONIVNHFONIV
CPAPAwake proningCPAPAwake proning
Indicators of failure of trial of non-invasive respiratory support‘Unacceptable’ ABG‘Unacceptable’ work of breathingFailure to improve‘Unacceptable’ ABG‘Unacceptable’ work of breathingFailure to improve
Trial of therapy after failure of first-line strategyAn alternative non-invasive strategyInvasive mechanical ventilationAn alternative non-invasive strategyInvasive mechanical ventilation
  • For each survey question, median scores were calculated with a score of <3.5 being considered inappropriate (red background), ≥3.5 and<6.5 uncertain (amber background) and ≥6.5 appropriate (green background).

  • *In the context of the pandemic.

  • †Outside the context of the pandemic.

  • ABG, arterial blood gas; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure; NHFO, nasal high-flow oxygen; NIV, non-invasive ventilation.