Table 1

Baseline characteristics of girls and boys by exposed and non-exposed to ACEs early in life

CharacteristicGirlsBoys
Exposed (N=8673)Non-exposed (N=218 483)Total (N=227 156)P value*Exposed (N=9257)Non-exposed (N=230 143)Total (N=239 400)P value*
Maternal age at delivery (years)
 <251624 (18.7)30 994 (14.2)32 618 (14.4)1771 (19.1)32 820 (14.3)34 591 (14.4)
 25–345575 (64.3)154 868 (70.9)160 443 (70.6)5831 (63.0)162 856 (70.8)168 687 (70.5)
 ≥351474 (17.0)32 621 (14.9)34 095 (15.0)<0.00011655 (17.9)34 467 (15.0)36 122 (15.1)<0.0001
Parents highest educational level at conception
 Vocational education or below5797 (66.8)126 051 (57.7)131 848 (58.0)6150 (66.4)132 562 (57.6)138 712 (57.9)
 Higher education2834 (32.7)91 925 (42.1)94 759 (41.7)3060 (33.1)97 016 (42.2)100 076 (41.8)
 Missing42 (0.5)507 (0.2)549 (0.2)<0.000147 (0.5)565 (0.2)612 (0.3)<0.0001
Maternal smoking during pregnancy
 No4991 (57.5)142 825 (65.4)147 816 (65.1)5482 (59.2)150 299 (65.3)155 781 (65.1)
 Yes2315 (26.7)37 719 (17.3)40 034 (17.6)2356 (25.5)39 582 (17.2)41 938 (17.5)
 Missing1367 (15.8)37 939 (17.4)39 306 (17.3)<0.00011419 (15.3)40 262 (17.5)41 681 (17.4)<0.0001
Maternal place of living at delivery
 Rural7678 (88.5)194 375 (89.0)202 053 (88.9)8201 (88.6)204 485 (88.9)212 686 (88.8)
 Urban981 (11.3)23 895 (10.9)24 876 (11.0)1047 (11.3)25 406 (11.0)26 453 (11.0)
 Missing14 (0.2)213 (0.1)227 (0.1)0.26479 (0.1)252 (0.1)261 (0.1)0.4169
Parity
 First3475 (40.1)93 633 (42.9)97 108 (42.7)3776 (40.8)98 459 (42.8)102 235 (42.7)
 ≥25154 (59.4)124 116 (56.8)129 270 (56.9)5445 (58.8)130 850 (56.9)136 295 (56.9)
 Missing44 (0.5)734 (0.3)778 (0.3)<0.000136 (0.4)834 (0.4)870 (0.4)0.0002
Calendar year of birth
 1997–19992772 (32.0)81 939 (37.5)84 711 (37.3)2922 (31.6)86 465 (37.6)89 387 (37.3)
 2000–20023556 (41.0)82 300 (37.7)85 856 (37.8)3861 (41.7)86 580 (37.6)90 441 (37.8)
 2003–20042345 (27.0)54 244 (24.8)56 589 (24.9)<0.00012474 (26.7)57 098 (24.8)59 572 (24.9)<0.0001
Season of birth
 Winter2138 (24.7)56 040 (25.6)58 178 (25.6)2350 (25.4)58 511 (25.4)60 861 (25.4)
 Spring2301 (26.5)58 129 (26.6)60 430 (26.6)2375 (25.7)61 390 (26.7)63 765 (26.6)
 Summer2116 (24.4)53 727 (24.6)55 843 (24.6)2315 (25.0)56 780 (24.7)59 095 (24.7)
 Fall2118 (24.4)50 587 (23.2)52 705 (23.2)0.02722217 (23.9)53 562 (23.3)55 779 (23.3)0.1186
Offspring asthma trajectories
 No asthma7778 (89.7)199 857 (91.5)207 635 (91.4)7788 (84.1)199 479 (86.7)207 267 (86.6)
 Early-onset transient asthma532 (6.1)11 208 (5.1)11 740 (5.2)871 (9.4)17 937 (7.8)18 808 (7.9)
 Early-onset persistent asthma165 (1.9)3346 (1.5)3511 (1.5)320 (3.5)6140 (2.7)6460 (2.7)
 Late-onset asthma198 (2.3)4072 (1.9)4270.0 (1.9)<0.0001278 (3.0)6587 (2.9)6865 (2.9)<0.0001
  • *The p values are computed using a χ2 distribution.

  • ACE, adverse childhood experiences.