Table 1

Cigarette smoking-related phenotypic changes of alveolar macrophages

Cell surface markerFunctionLevel of expression in smokersReference
CD11cIntegrin alpha X chain; adherence to stimulated endothelium and phagocytosis of complement-coated particles31 43 44
CD14Co-receptor working with toll-like receptors; facilitates response to lipopolysaccharide38
CD16Type III Fc gamma binds immunoglobulin; participates in signal transduction and phagocytosis43
CD31Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule; promotes tethering of apoptotic cells in efferocytosis38
CD36Scavenger receptor; regulates efferocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils and role in fatty acid uptake and lipid metabolism40
CD44Cell surface glycoprotein involved in cell–cell interactions, adhesion and migration; receptor of efferocytosis38 42
CD54Intercellular adhesion molecule-1; involved in cell–cell interactions and leucocyte migration43 45
CD71Transferrin receptor; role in iron metabolism and iron import into cells through endocytosis38 45
CD91Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein; binds to collagen like region on lung collectins and role in phagocytosis38
CD163Scavenger receptor for haemoglobin–haptoglobin complex; innate immune receptor for bacteria and can be influenced by corticosteroids40