Table 3

Characteristics of current ACE-I/ARB users and non-users aged 50 years or above, before and after inverse probability of treatment weighting

Unweighted cohortIPTW cohort
Current ACE-I/ARB useNo ACE-I/ARB useSMDCurrent ACE-I/ARB useNo ACE-I/ARB useSMD
(n=1336)(n=4326)(n=1179)(n=4738)
Age, median (IQR)70 (60–79)61 (55–73)0.5066 (58–77)64 (56–78)0.09
Sex (male)685 (51.3)1830 (42.3)0.18525 (44.5)2164 (45.7)0.02
Status as healthcare professional
 Physician20 (1.5)99 (2.3)0.0621 (1.8)87 (1.8)0.01
 Nurse38 (2.8)352 (8.1)0.2356 (4.7)291 (6.1)0.06
 Care assistent39 (2.9)223 (5.2)0.1139 (3.3)193 (4.1)0.04
Use of antihypertensives (within prior 90 days)
 ACE inhibitors544 (40.7)01.17443 (37.6)01.10
 Angiotensin receptor blockers800 (59.9)01.73741 (62.9)01.84
 Calcium channel blockers376 (28.1)213 (4.9)0.66157 (13.3)771 (16.3)0.08
 Thiazides434 (32.5)143 (3.3)0.82142 (12.0)744 (15.7)0.11
 Beta blockers345 (25.8)345 (8.0)0.49197 (16.7)866 (18.3)0.04
 Other antihypertensives25 (1.9)13 (0.3)0.1512 (1.1)50 (1.1)0.00
Diagnoses (within prior 10 years)
 Hypertension603 (45.1)496 (11.5)0.81299 (25.4)1277 (26.9)0.04
 Atrial fibrillation182 (13.6)353 (8.2)0.18158 (13.4)544 (11.5)0.06
 Hospital-diagnosed obesity134 (10.0)256 (5.9)0.1591 (7.8)436 (9.2)0.05
 Angina205 (15.3)288 (6.7)0.28138 (11.7)565 (11.9)0.01
 Heart valve disease90 (6.7)113 (2.6)0.2051 (4.3)176 (3.7)0.03
 Alcohol abuse47 (3.5)125 (2.9)0.0447 (4.0)211 (4.4)0.02
 Diabetes390 (29.2)379 (8.8)0.54195 (16.6)760 (16.0)0.01
 Venous thromboembolism57 (4.3)171 (4.0)0.0256 (4.8)192 (4.1)0.04
 Dementia89 (6.7)263 (6.1)0.0291 (7.7)285 (6.0)0.07
 Myocardial infarction73 (5.5)99 (2.3)0.1745 (3.9)147 (3.1)0.04
 Liver disease10 (0.7)63 (1.5)0.0718 (1.6)57 (1.2)0.03
 Kidney disease94 (7.0)112 (2.6)0.2167 (5.7)227 (4.8)0.04
 Chronic pulmonary disease158 (11.8)391 (9.0)0.09145 (12.3)488 (10.3)0.06
 End-stage renal disease(n<5)11 (0.3)0.0213 (1.1)11 (0.2)0.10
 Heart failure119 (8.9)99 (2.3)0.2963 (5.4)331 (7.0)0.07
 Cancer177 (13.2)428 (9.9)0.11141 (12.0)568 (12.0)0.00
 Stroke138 (10.3)215 (5.0)0.2093 (7.9)328 (6.9)0.04
Markers of smoking 430 (32.2)1170 (27.0)0.11362 (30.7)1321 (27.9)0.06
Medications (within prior 90 days)
 Statins545 (40.8)504 (11.7)0.70263 (22.3)1145 (24.2)0.04
 Antivirals16 (1.2)57 (1.3)0.0117 (1.4)54 (1.1)0.03
 Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid208 (15.6)199 (4.6)0.37112 (9.5)395 (8.3)0.04
 Vitamin K-antagonists32 (2.4)50 (1.2)0.0929 (2.4)69 (1.4)0.07
 Opioids176 (13.2)426 (9.8)0.10173 (14.7)701 (14.8)0.00
 Antidepressants199 (14.9)472 (10.9)0.12167 (14.1)609 (12.9)0.04
 Immunosuppresants8 (0.6)20 (0.5)0.02(n<5)28 (0.6)0.04
 Antipsychotics52 (3.9)138 (3.2)0.0440 (3.4)169 (3.6)0.01
 Glucocorticoids55 (4.1)150 (3.5)0.0361 (5.2)168 (3.5)0.08
 Hypnotics89 (6.7)218 (5.0)0.0795 (8.1)359 (7.6)0.02
 Loop diuretics212 (15.9)220 (5.1)0.36121 (10.3)535 (11.3)0.03
 Antibiotics361 (27.0)843 (19.5)0.18291 (24.7)1106 (23.3)0.03
Socioeconomic factors
 Marital status
  Widowed286 (21.4)591 (13.7)0.20226 (19.1)801 (16.9)0.06
  Divorced195 (14.6)745 (17.2)0.07194 (16.5)734 (15.5)0.03
  Married743 (55.6)2519 (58.2)0.05641 (54.4)2748 (58.0)0.07
  Unmarried95 (7.1)429 (9.9)0.10102 (8.7)408 (8.6)0.00
  Unknown17 (1.3)42 (1.0)0.0315 (1.3)46 (1.0)0.03
 Ethnicity
  Non-immigrant1159 (86.8)3665 (84.7)0.061013 (86.0)4008 (84.6)0.04
  First-generation or second-generation immigrant177 (13.2)661 (15.3)0.06166 (14.0)730 (15.4)0.04
 Residence
  Non-urban747 (55.9)2397 (55.4)0.01644 (54.6)2685 (56.7)0.04
  Urban589 (44.1)1929 (44.6)0.01535 (45.4)2052 (43.3)0.04
  • ACE-I, ACE inhibitors; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; SMD, standardised mean difference.