Table 2

Characteristics of current ACE-I/ARB users and current CCB users before and after inverse probability of treatment weighting

Unweighted cohortIPTW cohort
Current ACE-I/ARB usersCurrent CCB usersSMDCurrent ACE-I/ARB usersCurrent CCB usersSMD
(n=1065)(n=289)(n=1065)(n=285)
Age, median (IQR)68 (58–79)72 (60–82)0.2069 (58–80)68 (57–80)0.02
Sex (male)519 (48.7)133 (46.0)0.05511 (48.0)139 (48.9)0.02
Status as healthcare professional
 Physician20 (1.9)(n<5)0.0718 (1.7)(n<5)0.00
 Nurse46 (4.3)5 (1.7)0.1540 (3.8)10 (3.3)0.02
 Care assistant43 (4.0)9 (3.1)0.0541 (3.9)11 (4.0)0.01
Use of antihypertensives (within prior 90 days)
 ACE inhibitors426 (40.0)01.15426 (40.1)01.16
 Angiotensin receptor blockers645 (60.6)01.75644 (60.5)01.75
 Calcium channel blockers0289 (100.0).0285 (100.0).
 Thiazides316 (29.7)34 (11.8)0.45275 (25.9)72 (25.3)0.01
 Beta blockers234 (22.0)70 (24.2)0.05239 (22.4)65 (22.6)0.01
 Other antihypertensives16 (1.5)11 (3.8)0.1422 (2.1)6 (2.2)0.01
Diagnoses (within prior 10 years)
 Hypertension425 (39.9)137 (47.4)0.15440 (41.3)122 (42.6)0.03
 Atrial fibrillation138 (13.0)37 (12.8)0.00138 (13.0)38 (13.4)0.01
 Hospital-diagnosed obesity112 (10.5)23 (8.0)0.09106 (10.0)26 (9.1)0.03
 Angina146 (13.7)33 (11.4)0.07142 (13.3)41 (14.2)0.03
 Heart valve disease69 (6.5)13 (4.5)0.0964 (6.0)13 (4.5)0.07
 Alcohol abuse35 (3.3)12 (4.2)0.0537 (3.5)11 (3.8)0.02
 Diabetes291 (27.3)59 (20.4)0.16276 (26.0)78 (27.3)0.03
 Venous thromboembolism45 (4.2)22 (7.6)0.1452 (4.8)13 (4.4)0.02
 Dementia66 (6.2)20 (6.9)0.0367 (6.3)16 (5.7)0.03
 Myocardial infarction60 (5.6)8 (2.8)0.1453 (5.0)11 (4.0)0.05
 Liver disease10 (0.9)5 (1.7)0.0713 (1.2)(n<5)0.00
 Kidney disease66 (6.2)37 (12.8)0.2381 (7.6)22 (7.6)0.00
 Chronic pulmonary disease128 (12.0)34 (11.8)0.01127 (11.9)34 (11.9)0.00
 End-stage renal disease(n<5)6 (2.1)0.186 (0.5)(n<5)0.01
 Heart failure111 (10.4)15 (5.2)0.2099 (9.3)24 (8.6)0.03
 Cancer136 (12.8)32 (11.1)0.05132 (12.4)33 (11.6)0.02
 Stroke98 (9.2)35 (12.1)0.09104 (9.8)26 (9.1)0.02
Markers of smoking354 (33.2)93 (32.2)0.02351 (33.0)88 (30.7)0.05
Medications (within prior 90 days)
 Statins381 (35.8)95 (32.9)0.06373 (35.1)108 (37.7)0.06
 Antiviral14 (1.3)(n<5)0.1112 (1.1)(n<5)0.05
 Low-dose aspirin141 (13.2)37 (12.8)0.01140 (13.1)37 (12.8)0.01
 Vitamin K-antagonists23 (2.2)9 (3.1)0.0625 (2.4)6 (2.0)0.03
 Opioids131 (12.3)46 (15.9)0.10141 (13.3)45 (15.7)0.07
 Antidepressants152 (14.3)47 (16.3)0.06156 (14.6)42 (14.6)0.00
 Immunosuppressants8 (0.8)(n<5)0.069 (0.9)(n<5)0.02
 Antipsychotics42 (3.9)10 (3.5)0.0341 (3.8)12 (4.1)0.01
 Glucocorticoids45 (4.2)11 (3.8)0.0243 (4.1)9 (3.0)0.06
 Hypnotics71 (6.7)20 (6.9)0.0175 (7.1)26 (9.1)0.08
 Loop diuretics157 (14.7)42 (14.5)0.01158 (14.9)45 (15.7)0.02
 Antibiotics282 (26.5)80 (27.7)0.03283 (26.6)77 (27.1)0.01
Socioeconomic factors
 Marital status
  Widowed207 (19.4)72 (24.9)0.13221 (20.8)63 (22.1)0.03
  Divorced156 (14.6)34 (11.8)0.09149 (14.0)35 (12.2)0.05
  Married589 (55.3)156 (54.0)0.03584 (54.9)158 (55.2)0.01
  Unmarried102 (9.6)24 (8.3)0.04100 (9.4)28 (9.8)0.01
  Unknown11 (1.0)(n<5)0.0011 (1.0)(n<5)0.02
 Ethnicity
  Non-immigrant902 (84.7)251 (86.9)0.06908 (85.3)240 (84.1)0.03
  First- or second-generation immigrant163 (15.3)38 (13.1)0.06156 (14.7)45 (15.9)0.03
 Residence
  Non-urban581 (54.6)160 (55.4)0.02584 (54.9)155 (54.4)0.01
  Urban484 (45.4)129 (44.6)0.02480 (45.1)130 (45.6)0.01
  • ACE-I, ACE inhibitors; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; CCB, calcium channel blocker; IPTW, inverse probability of treatment weighting; SMD, standardised mean difference.