Table 2

Interventions at end of life

ILD, n=177Lung cancer, n=184P valueAdjusted
p value*
Place of death<0.001<0.001†
 General ward168 (94.9)117 (63.6)
 ICU8 (4.5)0 (0.0)
 Hospice1 (0.6)67 (36.4)
Opioid use at the last hospitalisation17 (9.6)59 (32.1)<0.001<0.001
Benzodiazepine use at the last hospitalisation22 (12.4)29 (15.8)0.370.51
Referral to specialised palliative care services15 (8.5)100 (54.3)<0.001<0.001
Number of diagnostic tests during the last 7 days of life
 Radiographs3 (2–5)1 (0–2)<0.001<0.001
 Blood tests3 (2–4)1 (0–2)<0.001<0.001
Medical intervention during the last 2 days of life
 Opioids103 (58.2)135 (73.4)0.0030.004
 Sustained sedation40 (22.6)58 (31.5)0.060.07
 Steroids122 (68.9)72 (39.1)<0.001<0.001
 Antibiotics109 (61.6)46 (25.0)<0.001<0.001
 Blood transfusion7 (4.0)0 (0.0)0.0060.99
 Vasopressor agents14 (7.9)4 (2.2)0.020.02
 Nasoenteric feeding17 (9.6)2 (1.1)<0.0010.003
 Invasive mechanical ventilation12 (6.8)1 (0.5)0.0010.01
 Non-invasive ventilation28 (15.8)0 (0.0)<0.0010.99
 Attempt resuscitation7 (4.0)3 (1.6)0.210.21
Infusion volume in the last day of life, mL/day1000 (500–1350)500 (200–800)<0.001<0.001
Life-sustaining care decision at 48 hours before death128 (72.3)176 (95.7)<0.001<0.001
  • Categorical variables are expressed as number (percentage).

  • Quantitative variables are expressed as median (IQR).

  • Parameters in each group were compared using Fisher’s exact test or Mann-Whitney U test as appropriate.

  • *To calculate adjusted p values, linear regression models or logistic regression models were used as appropriate. All models were adjusted for patient’s age at death and patient’s sex.

  • †The dependent variable, place of death, was handled as a dichotomous variable (ie, hospice or others), and its association with the patient’s diagnosis was assessed using a logistic regression model.

  • ICU, intensive care units; ILD, interstitial lung disease.