Table 2

List of comorbidities that restrict ICU admission from the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences

Stage A: when beds are available exclusion criteria for ICU admission include any one of:Stage B: when no beds are available exclusion criteria for ICU admission include any one of:
Severe and irreversible neurological conditionsSevere cerebral deficits after stroke
NYHA class IV heart failureNYHA class III or IV heart failure
COPD GOLD grade 4 group DCOPD GOLD grade 4 group D or COPD groups A–D with either FEV1<25% or cor pulmonale or home oxygen therapy (long-term oxygen therapy)
Liver cirrhosis with Child-Pugh score >8Liver cirrhosis with refractory ascites or encephalopathy >stage I
Severe dementiaModerate confirmed dementia
Malignant disease with <12 months’ life expectancySevere burns (>40% of total body surface area affected) with inhalation injury
End-stage neurodegenerative diseasesStage V chronic kidney disease (KDIGO)
Severe circulatory failureAge >85 years
Cardiac arrests which are unwitnessed, recurrent or with no return of spontaneous circulationAge >75 years and at least one criterion (liver cirrhosis, stage III chronic kidney disease (KDIGO), NYHA class >I heart failure, estimated survival <24 months)
Treatment resistant despite increased vasoactive therapy
Estimated survival <12 months
  • COPD, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; FEV1, Forced expiratory volume in 1 second; GOLD, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; ICU, intensive care unit; KDIGO, Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes; NYHA, New York Heart Association functional classification of heart failure.