Table 6

Associations of paternal psychological distress with lung function and asthma in children at age 10 years

NFEV1
Z-score (95% CI)
n=3757
FVC
Z-score (95% CI)
n=3757
FEV1/FVC
Z-score (95% CI)
n=3757
FEF75
Z-score (95% CI)
n=3757
Current asthma
OR (95% CI)
n=3640
Paternal psychological distress
 Overall psychological distress4231
  Per 1-unit increase0.00 (−0.18 to 0.18)−0.05 (−0.23 to 0.13)0.07 (−0.08 to 0.22)0.03 (−0.13 to 0.19)1.13 (0.56 to 2.26)
  Clinical cut-off−0.05 (−0.30 to 0.20)−0.08 (−0.31 to 0.14)0.04 (−0.17 to 0.24)−0.04 (−0.25 to 0.17)0.98 (0.44 to 2.18)
 Depressive symptoms4231
  Per 1-unit increase−0.02 (−0.18 to 0.14)−0.04 (−0.19 to 0.11)0.02 (−0.10 to 0.14)−0.01 (−0.16 to 0.13)1.04 (0.59 to 1.85)
  Clinical cut-off−0.07 (−0.30 to 0.16)−0.07 (−0.30 to 0.16)−0.02 (−0.20 to 0.17)−0.06 (−0.25 to 0.13)1.04 (0.43 to 2.53)
 Anxiety symptoms4231
  Per 1-unit increase−0.01 (−0.17 to 0.15)−0.03 (−0.19 to 0.14)0.02 (−0.10 to 0.14)−0.01 (−0.14 to 0.13)0.85 (0.46 to 1.58)
  Clinical cut-off−0.13 (−0.28 to 0.02)−0.13 (−0.27 to 0.01)0.01 (−0.14 to 0.15)−0.06 (−0.21 to 0.09)0.99 (0.51 to 1.92)
  • Values are z-scores or odds ratios (OR) with 95% CIs from linear or logistic regression models, respectively.

  • Paternal psychological distress is treated as a continuous variable (per 1-unit increase) or a dichotomous variable based on clinical cut-offs (no; yes, where ‘no’ was the reference category).

  • The models were adjusted for maternal age, parity, education level, smoking during pregnancy, body mass index at enrolment, history of asthma or atopy and pet keeping, and child’s sex, gestational age at birth, birth weight, ethnicity, breastfeeding and daycare attendance and maternal psychological distress during pregnancy.

  • FEF75, forced expiratory flow after exhaling 75% of FVC; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC, forced vital capacity.