Table 5

Associations of maternal psychological distress with lung function and asthma in children at age 10 years, adjusted for maternal psychological distress at 2, 6 and 36 months after pregnancy and paternal psychological distress at 36 months after pregnancy

NFEV1
Z-score (95% CI)
n=3757
FVC
Z-score (95% CI)
n=3757
FEV1/FVC
Z-score (95% CI)
n=3757
FEF75
Z-score (95% CI)
n=3757
Current asthma
OR (95% CI)
n=3640
Main model + maternal psychological distress at 2 months
 Overall psychological distress4231
  Per 1-unit increase−0.03 (−0.15 to 0.09)−0.06 (−0.18 to 0.05)0.05 (−0.08 to 0.17)0.05 (−0.07 to 0.18)2.01 (1.26 to 3.22)**
  Clinical cut-off0.01 (−0.12 to 0.14)−0.02 (−0.15 to 0.10)0.02 (−0.11 to 0.14)0.06 (−0.06 to 0.18)2.11 (1.30 to 3.43)**
 Depressive symptoms4226
  Per 1-unit increase−0.02 (−0.11 to 0.06)−0.05 (−0.13 to 0.03)0.04 (−0.05 to 0.12)0.04 (−0.04 to 0.13)1.37 (1.00 to 1.88)
  Clinical cut-off−0.12 (−0.23 to 0.01)−0.10 (−0.21 to 0.02)−0.04 (−0.16 to 0.09)−0.04 (−0.16 to 0.08)1.87 (1.18 to 2.97)**
 Anxiety symptoms4225
  Per 1-unit increase0.00 (−0.09 to 0.09)−0.01 (−0.10 to 0.08)0.00 (−0.09 to 0.10)0.00 (−0.09 to 0.09)1.70 (1.20 to 2.41)**
  Clinical cut-off−0.01 (−0.12 to 0.11)0.02 (−0.09 to 0.13)−0.06 (−0.18 to 0.05)−0.05 (−0.16 to 0.06)1.72 (1.09 to 2.72)*
Main model + maternal psychological distress at 6 months
 Depressive symptoms4226
  Per 1-unit increase−0.05 (−0.14 to 0.04)−0.06 (−0.14 to 0.03)0.00 (0.08 to 0.09)0.01 (−0.08 to 0.09)1.29 (0.93 to 1.78)
  Clinical cut-off0.13 (−0.26 to -0.01)*0.13 (−0.24 to -0.01)*−0.02 (−0.15 to 0.10)−0.04 (−0.16 to 0.08)1.58 (0.99 to 2.54)
 Anxiety symptoms4225
  Per 1-unit increase−0.04 (−0.13 to 0.04)−0.04 (−0.13 to 0.04)−0.02 (−0.11 to 0.07)−0.02 (−0.11 to 0.06)1.61 (1.16 to 2.22)**
  Clinical cut-off−0.02 (−0.13 to 0.09)−0.01 (−0.11 to 0.12)−0.07 (−0.18 to 0.05)−0.06 (−0.17 to 0.05)1.59 (1.02 to 2.48)*
Main model + maternal psychological distress at 36 months
 Depressive symptoms4226
  Per 1-unit increase−0.05 (−0.13 to 0.04)−0.07 (−0.15 to 0.01)0.03 (−0.05 to 0.11)0.03 (−0.06 to 0.11)1.38 (1.02 to 1.86)*
  Clinical cut-off0.12 (−0.24 to −0.00)*0.12 (−0.24 to −0.01)*−0.01 (−0.13 to 0.11)−0.02 (−0.14 to 0.09)1.78 (1.14 to 2.78)*
 Anxiety symptoms4225
  Per 1-unit increase−0.03 (−0.11 to 0.06)−0.03 (−0.12 to 0.05)−0.00 (−0.09 to 0.08)−0.01 (−0.09 to 0.07)1.43 (1.05 to 1.95)*
  Clinical cut-off−0.01 (−0.12 to 0.10)0.01 (−0.10 to 0.12)−0.06 (−0.17 to 0.06)−0.05 (−0.15 to 0.06)1.52 (0.99 to 2.34)
Main model + paternal psychological distress at 36 months
 Depressive symptoms4226
  Per 1-unit increase−0.05 (−0.12 to 0.03)−0.07 (−0.14 to 0.00)0.03 (−0.05 to 0.11)0.02 (−0.05 to 0.10)1.41 (1.07 to 1.86)*
  Clinical cut-off0.13 (−0.24 to −0.01)*0.13 (−0.24 to −0.02)*−0.00 (−0.12 to 0.11)−0.03 (−0.14 to 0.08)1.78 (1.16 to 2.74)*
 Anxiety symptoms4225
  Per 1-unit increase−0.02 (−0.09 to 0.06)−0.03 (−0.11 to 0.04)0.01 (−0.07 to 0.09)−0.00 (−0.08 to 0.07)1.51 (1.15 to 1.99)**
  Clinical cut-off−0.01 (−0.12 to 0.10)0.01 (−0.10 to 0.11)−0.05 (−0.16 to 0.06)−0.05 (−0.15 to 0.05)1.60 (1.06 to 2.41)*
  • Values are z-scores or odds ratios (OR) with 95% CIs from linear or logistic regression models, respectively.

  • Maternal psychological distress is treated as a continuous variable (per 1-unit increase) or a dichotomous variable based on clinical cut-offs (no; yes, where ‘no’ was the reference category).

  • The main models were adjusted for maternal age, parity, education level, smoking during pregnancy, body mass index at enrolment, history of asthma or atopy and pet keeping, and child’s sex, gestational age at birth, birth weight, ethnicity, breastfeeding and daycare attendance. Additionally, models were adjusted for maternal psychological distress at 2, 6 or 36 months after pregnancy or for paternal psychological distress at 36 months after pregnancy. At 6 and 36 months after pregnancy, not all subscales were measured and therefore overall psychological distress could not be included at these time points.

  • *P<0.05, **P<0.01.

  • FEF75, forced expiratory flow after exhaling 75% of FVC; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC, forced vital capacity.