Table 1

Characteristics of mothers and fathers

n=4231
MothersFathers
Mean (SD) age, years30.9 (4.8)33.4 (5.6)
Parity, nulliparous59.5 (2516)
Ethnicity, non-European31.4 (1329)35.6 (1507)
Education, lower48.1 (2034)48.9 (2068)
Smoking during pregnancy, yes26.5 (1122)
Smoking before pregnancy, yes41.6 (1761)
Mean (SD) BMI at enrolment, kg/m224.5 (4.2)25.3 (3.4)
History of asthma or atopy, yes37.7 (1594)33.7 (1425)
Pet keeping, yes35.9 (1520)
Psychological distress during pregnancy
 Overall psychological distress, continuously*0.15 (0.00 to 0.91)0.08 (0.00 to 0.55)
 Overall psychological distress, yes8.6 (362)3.9 (167)
 Depressive symptoms, continuously*0.00 (0.00 to 1.00)0.00 (0.00 to 0.67)
 Depressive symptoms, yes8.2 (348)4.3 (182)
 Anxiety symptoms, continuously*0.17 (0.00 to 1.00)0.00 (0.00 to 0.75)
 Anxiety symptoms, yes9.3 (395)8.0 (337)
Psychological distress at 2 months after pregnancy
 Overall psychological distress, continuously*0.13 (0.00 to 0.93)
 Overall psychological distress, yes7.9 (333)
 Depressive symptoms, continuously*0.00 (0.00 to 1.08)
 Depressive symptoms, yes8.2 (349)
 Anxiety symptoms, continuously*0.00 (0.00 to 1.00)
 Anxiety symptoms, yes8.3 (350)
Psychological distress at 6 months after pregnancy
 Depressive symptoms, continuously*0.17 (0.00 to 1.17)
 Depressive symptoms, yes8.5 (358)
 Anxiety symptoms, continuously*0.00 (0.00 to 1.17)
 Anxiety symptoms, yes9.9 (417)
Psychological distress at 36 months after pregnancy
 Depressive symptoms, continuously*0.00 (0.00 to 0.78)0.00 (0.00 to 0.68)
 Depressive symptoms, yes5.1 (217)4.4 (187)
 Anxiety symptoms, continuously*0.00 (0.00 to 0.80)0.00 (0.00 to 0.68)
 Anxiety symptoms, yes5.1 (214)7.7 (324)
  • Data on maternal depressive (n=5) and anxiety (n=6) symptoms during pregnancy were missing and not imputed.

  • Values are means (SD),

  • *medians (5%–95% range), or valid percentages (absolute numbers).

  • –, not all information was available for both mothers and fathers; BMI, body mass index.