Table 3

Multivariable analysis of serum-free testosterone and lung function measures

Serum levels of sex hormonesWomen
(n=87 137)
Men
(n=94 491)
β (95% CI)
Free testosterone (pmol/L), per quartile increment
 FEV1 (mL)−2.3 (−4.6 to 0.3)26.0 (22.8 to 29.2)*
 FVC (mL)−4.3 (−7.1 to −1.5)*36.0 (32.3 to 39.8)*
 FEV1/FVC (%)0.03 (−0.01 to 0.06)−0.004 (−0.04 to 0.04)
Estradiol ≥123.7 pmol/L
 FEV1 (mL)5.40 (−2.15 to 12.94)−44.70 (−56.52 to −38.88)†
 FVC (mL)11.13 (1.99 to 20.28)*−50.11 (−63.94 to −36.28)†
 FEV1/FVC (%)−0.12 (−0.23 to −0.02)*−0.21 (−0.34 to −0.07)†
  • All models included both serum-free testosterone and serum estradiol, and were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, annual household income, body mass index, asthma status, smoking status, pack-years of cigarette smoking, current use of birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy and menopause status (in women), and the season and the time of the day when the examination was performed. Models for FEV1 and FVC were additionally adjusted for height and height squared.

  • *p<0.05.

  • †p<0.01.