Table 2

Multivariable analysis of serum-free testosterone level and current wheeze, and at least one asthma hospitalisation

Serum levels of sex hormonesCurrent wheezeAt least one asthma hospitalisation
OR (95% CI)
Women with asthma (n=14 056) n=8826 n=484
Quartiles (Q) of free testosterone, pmol/L 
 Q1 (<5.9)1.01.0
 Q2 (5.9 to <9.8)0.87 (0.79 to 0.96) 0.91 (0.71 to 1.17)
 Q3 (9.8 to <14.8)0.78 (0.70 to 0.86) 0.86 (0.66 to 1.11)
 Q4 (≥14.8)0.78 (0.71 to 0.87)†‡ 0.73 (0.56 to 0.95)*‡
Estradiol, pmol/L
 <123.71.01.0
 ≥123.71.10 (0.99 to 1.22)1.12 (0.86 to 1.45)
Men with asthma (n=14 247) n=9341 n=354
Quartiles (Q) of free testosterone, pmol/L
 Q1 (<121.0)1.01.0
 Q2 (121.0 to <158.5)1.01 (0.91 to 1.12)0.91 (0.67 to 1.22)
 Q3 (158.5 to <199.2)0.93 (0.84 to 1.03)0.86 (0.64 to 1.17)
 Q4 (≥199.2) 0.86 (0.77 to 0.95)†‡ 0.84 (0.61 to 1.15)
Estradiol, pmol/L
 <123.71.01.0
 ≥123.70.96 (0.84 to 1.08)1.20 (0.85 to 1.70)
  • All models included both serum-free testosterone and serum estradiol levels, and were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, annual household income, body mass index, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, current use of birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy and menopause status (in women), and the season and the time of the day when the examination was performed.

  • *p<0.05, p<0.01, p for trend <0.05.