Table 3

Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients treated with or without ICS as the highest level of therapy during follow-up

VariableNo ICS
(n=4867)
ICS
(n=14572)
P valueSMD
Follow-up after index date, years
Median (IQR)5.5 (4.1–7.7)6.5 (4.7–8.7)<0.000130.2
Age (years) at index date
Mean (SD)66.0 (9.8)65.3 (10.0)<0.00016.9
Male sex, n (%)2658 (54.6)7557 (51.9)0.00095.5
BMI, n (%)
Underweight153 (3.1)430 (3.0)0.29412.2
Normal weight1550 (31.8)4786 (32.8)
Overweight1747 (35.9)5293 (36.3)
Obese1417 (29.1)4063 (27.9)
Baseline smoking status, closest within 5 years, n (%)n=4565n=13376
Ex-smoker2183 (47.8)6922 (51.7)<0.00017.9
Smoking status up to 5 years of follow-up after index date, n (%)n=4561n=13367
Sustained quitter1486 (32.6)4581 (34.3)<0.00016.7
Intermittent quitter1494 (32.8)4655 (34.8)
Continuous smoker1581 (34.7)4131 (30.9)
Asthma diagnosis ever, n (%)293 (6.0)2874 (19.7)<0.000141.8
Charlson Comorbidity Index, n (%)
0–12467 (50.7)6495 (44.6)<0.00011.8
2–4760 (15.6)3502 (24.0)
5–9625 (12.8)1783 (12.2)
≥101015 (20.9)2792 (19.2)
mMRC score, n (%)n=4687n=13676
0–13361 (71.7)9227 (67.5)<0.000111.1
≥21326 (28.3)4449 (32.5)
GOLD groups (2017), n (%)n=4687n=13676
A2867 (61.2)7351 (53.8)<0.000117.7
B1121 (23.9)3494 (25.5)
C494 (10.5)1876 (13.7)
D205 (4.4)955 (7.0)
FEV1 at index date
Mean (SD) absolute value (mL)1762.5 (501.3)1708.8 (496.3)<0.000110.8
Mean (SD) % predicted67.5 (9.7)66.0 (10.0)<0.000115.1
COPD exacerbations in year prior to index date, n (%)
02907 (59.7)7839 (53.8)<0.000116.5
11256 (25.8)3837 (26.3)
2472 (9.7)1719 (11.8)
3147 (3.0)710 (4.9)
≥485 (1.7)467 (3.2)
Mean (SD)0.6 (1.0)0.8 (1.1)<0.000116.5
COPD exacerbations in year prior to highest therapy initiation, n (%)
03160 (64.9)8027 (55.1)<0.000125.2
11066 (21.9)3504 (24.0)
2412 (8.5)1667 (11.4)
3160 (3.3)746 (5.1)
≥469 (1.4)628 (4.3)
Mean (SD)0.6 (0.9)0.8 (1.3)<0.000125.6
COPD exacerbations, annual rate after initiation of highest therapy, rounded, n (%)
03635 (74.7)8822 (60.5)<0.000131.2
1946 (19.4)4001 (27.5)
2196 (4.0)1039 (7.1)
355 (1.1)369 (2.5)
≥435 (0.7)341 (2.3)
Mean (SD)0.4 (0.7)0.6 (1.0)
  • BMI, body mass index; ICS, inhaled corticosteroid; mMRC, modified Medical Research Council; P, p value for the Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank test, or the Pearson's chi-square test of independent categories, where appropriate; SMD, standardised mean difference.