Table 2

Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident lung cancer associated with COPD (n=338 548)

Person-yearsNo. of casesIncidence rate
(per 1000 person-years)
Subdistribution HR (95% CI)
COPD status
 None2 296 03215440.7Reference
 COPD58 9722904.93.12 (2.66 to 3.65)
COPD and smoking status
 Never smokers without COPD1 670 9297830.5Reference
 Never smokers with COPD41 2661223.02.67 (2.09 to 3.40)
 Ever smokers without COPD625 1047611.21.97 (1.75 to 2.21)
 Ever smokers with COPD17 7051689.56.19 (5.04 to 7.61)
  • *Subhazard ratios for incident lung cancer were modelled with mortality as a competing risk and adjusted for sex, body mass index (continuous) and Charlson comorbidity index (age as time scale).

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.