Table 4

Outcome measures at baseline and after 6 weeks of RMT for groups divided by time since injury (acute group less than 1 year and chronic group greater than 1 year since injury)

Acute groupChronic group
Sham RMTActive RMTSham RMTActive RMT
Baseline (n=15)6 weeks (n=14)Baseline (n=15)6 weeks (n=15)P valueBaseline (n=17)6 weeks (n=16)Baseline (n=15)6 weeks (n=13)P value
Primary outcome
PImax (cmH2O)54.1±20.757.6±22.749.2±16.865.0±18.3 0.021 49.2±19.152.7±20.547.6±27.862.4±29.4 0.011
Secondary outcomes
PEmax (cmH2O)38.2±13.445.6±17.838.6±22.247.2±25.40.83228.8±13.330.7±15.127.0±11.029.0±11.90.879
Lung function
FEV1 (L)2.2±0.82.3±0.61.8±0.71.9±0.80.9881.7±0.61.6±0.71.7±0.81.7±0.90.345
FVC (L)2.9±1.03.1±0.92.3±1.02.6±1.10.9292.2±0.82.1±0.82.3±1.12.3±1.10.289
Inspiratory capacity (L)2.4±0.72.4±0.82.0±0.72.0±0.80.8091.9±0.61.8±0.72.0±0.71.9±0.80.907
PEFc (L/s)4.8±1.75.1±1.94.8±1.55.0±1.60.7924.5±1.64.4±1.74.3±1.44.4±1.40.931
Vital capacity (L)3.1±0.93.1±0.82.5±0.82.8±1.00.5632.3±0.82.3±0.92.4±0.72.3±1.10.160
Total lung capacity (L)5.1±1.55.4±1.05.0±0.95.4±1.00.6014.6±1.24.4±1.24.9±1.34.7±1.50.215
Respiratory complications (n)05020.39001020.589
Quality of life: Short Form-36 (SF-36ww)
Physical functioningN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A36.4±34.941.6±38.138.0±32.254.0±32.80.426
Role limitations (physical)N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A38.2±43.457.8±46.350.0±41.275.0±39.50.824
Role limitations (emotional)N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A68.6±44.975.0±41.373.4±36.189.8±21.00.865
Energy/fatigueN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A50.0±21.951.1±22.653.0±19.456.2±27.90.763
Emotional well-beingN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A74.8±17.373.0±26.174.1±17.270.1±19.60.801
Social functioningN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A50.8±36.868.1±30.667.7±26.275.2±31.70.398
PainN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A60.3±26.871.9±24.653.9±22.658.2±28.90.419
General healthN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A53.8±26.460.3±27.051.3±23.660.4±28.50.991
Quality of life: EQ-5D VAS 41.7±18.961.8±22.759.3±25.067.7±24.60.28266.5±20.165.0±20.458.0±17.970.4±20.0 0.023
Perceived breathlessness (Borg score)
At rest 1.0±1.10.4±0.50.8±1.21.2±1.7 0.025 0.6±0.90.5±0.80.8±1.10.9±1.40.340
Loaded inspiratory breaths 3.0±1.62.3±1.82.4±1.51.8±1.50.9073.8±2.24.1±2.23.3±2.51.6±1.6 0.009
Loaded expiratory breaths 4.0±2.23.4±2.33.0±1.72.2±2.00.7684.5±2.64.5±2.63.7±1.72.8±1.80.533
St George Respiratory Questionnaire
Symptom severity score29.3±15.728.5±23.320.7±26.218.5±17.90.27214.4±16.424.3±24.817.3±24.319.2±23.90.136
Activity scoreN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A9.0±12.04.9±7.615.6±13.25.2±3.10.295
Impacts scoreN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A18.9±18.414.7±14.918.5±17.112.1±10.90.671
Total scoreN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A15.1±12.813.3±13.115.4±16.49.6±9.90.328
  • Data shown as mean±SD.

  • One-year follow-up data not shown due to small participant numbers in each group.

  • N/A as data for this outcome not collected for this group due to the majority of the questions being relevant to people only living at home.

  • Bold p values indicate significance at level p<0.05.

  • EQ-5D VAS, EuroQol-Five Dimensional Visual Analogue Scale questionnaire; PEFc, peak expiratory cough flow; PEmax, maximal expiratory pressure; PImax, maximal inspiratory pressure; RMT, respiratory muscle training; SF-36ww, Short Form Health Survey: walk/wheel.