Table 2

Proportion of MDI use in different classes and potential reduction in kilo tons (kt) of CO2e if changing the proportion of MDI use in the England to the level of Sweden

England: inhalers/yearEngland:
Sweden: inhalers/yearSweden:
CO2e (kt) per year
potential annual reduction of CO2e (kt)
SABA21 931 511941 477 69210414.00350.0
LABA700 19565377 41529.308.4
SAMA421 191100No data1008.400
ICS6 733 44594765 79615127.00101.0
ICS+LABA14 075 067471 719 42813140.0091.0
LAMA and LAMA+LABA6 549 4480428 73206.550
LAMA+LABA + ICS5211992 626100−0.100
Total49 994 877704 771 68913705.0550.0
  • Analysis uses 2017 community prescribing data from the NHS in England ( and assumes carbon footprint of MDI is 20 kg CO2e and DPI is 1 kg CO2e. SAMA not included in analysis, as no DPI SAMA alternative is available. Potential annual reduction shows the hypothetical carbon savings if England were to prescribe the same proportions of MDI as Sweden.

  • DPI, dry powder inhaler; ICS, inhaled corticosteroid; LABA, long-acting β2-agonist; LAMA, long-acting muscarinic antagonist; MDI, metered dose inhaler; SABA, short-acting β2-agonist; SAMA, short-acting muscarinic antagonist.