Table 2

Parameter estimates* and CIs from the multivariable regression model of the rate of outpatient visits among patients with COPD and comparator non-COPD subjects

All-cause primary care visitsRespiratory-related primary care visitsSpecialist physician visitsPharmacist visits
Rate ratio95% CIRate ratio95% CIRate ratio95% CIRate ratio95% CI
COPD (vs comparator)1.401.39 to 1.412.172.14 to 2.191.351.34 to 1.371.621.60 to 1.63
Period1.061.06 to to to to 1.06
Female (vs male)1.161.15 to to to to 1.20
Age1.011.01 to to to to 1.01
 1 (vs 5)1.171.16 to to to 1.031.321.30 to 1.35
 2 (vs 5)1.101.09 to to 1.100.990.98 to to 1.14
 3 (vs 5)1.061.04 to to 1.070.990.97 to to 1.08
 4 (vs 5)1.031.02 to to 1.040.990.97 to to 1.06
Calendar year1.001.00 to 1.000.970.96 to 0.971.011.01 to to 1.02
  • *Parameter estimates for the category of observations that were missing for sex and SES are not shown due to their small numbers (see table 1 for details).

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; SES, socioeconomic status.