Table 1

Sample characteristics (n=423)

Variable nameNStatistic
Age, mean (SD)42310.5 (0.9)
Gender (%)
Race (%)
Caregiver education (%)
 Less than high school12939
 High school graduate14443.5
 More than high school5616.9
Total annual household income (%)
 US$8001 and above4823.7
Child’s health outcomes
Asthma severity (%)
 Moderate to severe277.2
 Mild persistent4612.3
 Mild Intermittent7419.7
Airway hyperresponsiveness (%)
Technician derived FEV1 (mean (SD))3691.74 (0.39)
Airwatch obtained FEV1 (Mean (SD))4231.6 (0.5)
Airwatch obtained peak expiratory flow (mean (SD))423275.2 (69.7)
Atopy,% yes13638.7
Caregiver smokes, %10528.5
Mean number of smokers in household (mean (SD))3440.9 (1.0)
Households with one or more smokers (%)24227.2
  • *‘Coloured’ people were defined as those of mixed ethnicity, based on the old racial classification system in South Africa. Although no longer a legal definition, ‘race’ or ethnicity still substantially predicts socioeconomic status in the country.