Table 1

Movement of MDR strains around the globe

MDR-defining nodeLineageSpoligotypeBootstrap valueTotal # MDR strains# Strains per country
(# XDR)
# Strains per UN region# Strains per datasetmin SNP dist. bt. countries
(A) Movement of MDR strains between UN geographic regions. This table lists MDR clades with >1 UN geographic region represented.
1LIN-4T21.003Uganda2E. Africa2Clark et al, 20132Uganda-Sweden 4
Sweden1N. Europe1TB-ARC Sweden1
2LIN-1EAI1-SOM1.003South Africa2S. Africa2Cohen et al, 20152South Africa-Sweden 5
Sweden1N. Europe1TB-ARC Sweden1
3LIN-2Beijing0.998Russia1E. Europe1Casali et al, 20141Russia-Uzbekistan 11
Uzbekistan7Central Asia7Merket et al., 20157
4LIN-2Beijing0.885Russia2E. Europe3TB-ARC Moldova1Russia-Moldova 12
Moldova1Merker et al., 20153Russia-Georgia 14
Georgia2W. Asia2Casali et al., 20141Moldova-Georgia 20
5LIN-2Beijing0.9923Russia19E. Europe21Merker et al., 20151Russia-Sweden 13
Belarus2 (2)Casali et al., 201419Russia-Georgia 17
Sweden1N. Europe1TB-ARC Belarus2Russia-Belarus 20
Georgia1W. Asia1TB-ARC Sweden1Belarus-Georgia 26
Belarus-Sweden 29
Sweden-Georgia 32
6LIN-2Beijing1.003UK1 (1)N. Europe2TB-ARC Moldova1UK-Moldova 14
Sweden1Casali et al., 20141UK-Sweden 19
Moldova1E. Europe1TB-ARC Sweden1Sweden-Moldova 24
7LIN-4LAM90.923Russia1E. Europe1Casali et al, 20141Russia-Sweden 14
Sweden2 (2)N. Europe2TB-ARC Sweden2
8LIN-2Beijing0.992Russia1E. Europe1Casali et al, 20141Russia-Iran 14
Iran1 (1)S. Asia1TB-ARC Iran1
9LIN-4LAM90.993Sweden1N. Europe1TB-ARC Moldova2Sweden-Moldova 15
Moldova2E. Europe2TB-ARC Sweden1
10LIN-2Beijing0.866UK1 (1)N. Europe1Bryant et al, 20131UK-Russia 16
Russia4E. Europe4Casali et al, 20145Russia-Netherlands 16
Netherlands1W. Europe1UK-Netherlands 17
11LIN-2Beijing0.847Russia2E. Europe2Merker et al, 20151Iran-Azerbaijan 17
Iran4 (4)S. Asia4Casali et al, 20142Russia-Azerbaijan 24
Azerbaijan1W. Asia1TB-ARC Iran4Russia-Iran 30
12LIN-4T21.002Uganda1N. Europe1Clark et al, 20131Uganda-Sweden 17
Sweden1E. Africa1TB-ARC Sweden1
13LIN-4LAM91.002Russia1N. Europe1Casali et al, 20141Russia-Sweden 17
Sweden1E. Europe1TB-ARC Sweden1
14LIN-2Beijing0.9437Russia32 (6)E. Europe35Merker et al, 20151Russia-Iran 19
Belarus3 (2)1Casali et al, 201432Russia-Germany 19
Germany1W. EuropeTB-ARC Iran1Iran-Germany 19
Iran1S. Asia1TB-ARC Belarus3Russia-Belarus 25
Iran-Belarus 27
Belarus-Germany 30
15LIN-2Beijing0.8852Russia1E. Europe51Merker et al, 20152Russia-Belarus 20
Belarus50 (27)TB-ARC Belarus50Turkmenistan-Belarus 30
Turkmenistan1Central Asia1Russia-Turkmenistan 34
16LIN-4S0.973Sweden1N. Europe1TB-ARC Romania2Sweden-Romania 21
Romania2E. Europe2TB-ARC Sweden1
17LIN-2Beijing0.823Russia2 (1)E. Europe2Merker et al, 20153Russia-Uzbekistan 22
Uzbekistan1Central Asia1
18LIN-2Beijing0.965South Africa4S. Africa4Cohen et al, 20152South Africa-Sweden 27
TB-ARC MRC2
Sweden1 (1)N. Europe1TB-ARC Sweden1
19LIN-2Beijing0.884Sweden3N. Europe3TB-ARC Iran1Sweden-Iran 33
Iran1S. Asia1TB-ARC Sweden3
20LIN-2Beijing0.952Russia1E. Europe1Merker et al, 20151Russia-Georgia 33
Georgia1W. Asia1Casali et al, 20141
21LIN-2Beijing0.9910Sweden2N. Europe2TB-ARC Sweden2Sweden-Belarus 36
Belarus8 (3)E. Europe8TB-ARC Belarus8
22LIN-2Beijing1.007Russia5N. Europe2Casali et al, 20145Russia-Sweden 39
Sweden2E. Europe5TB-ARC Sweden2
(B) Movement of MDR strains between countries within a UN geographical region. This table lists MDR clades found in a single UN geographic region, but in >1 country.
23LIN-4S1.0037South Africa36S. Africa37Cohen et al, 201518South Africa-Swaziland 1
Swaziland1TB-ARC MRC19
24LIN-4T11.0022Russia1E. Europe22Casali et al, 20141Russia-Belarus 7
Belarus21 (3)TB-ARC Belarus21
25LIN-2Beijing0.995Russia4 (1)E. Europe5TB-ARC Moldova1Russia-Moldova 9
Moldova1Casali et al, 20144
26LIN-4T10.9119South Africa18 (1)S. Africa19Cohen et al, 20157South Africa-Swaziland 13
Swaziland1TB-ARC MRC12
27LIN-4H30.9114Russia12E. Europe14TB-ARC Moldova2Russia-Moldova 16
Moldova2Casali et al, 201412
28LIN-2Beijing1.004UK1 (1)N. Europe4Bryant et al, 20133UK-Estonia 16
Estonia3 (1)Casali et al, 20141
29LIN-2Beijing0.914Belarus1E. Europe4TB-ARC Moldova3Belarus-Moldova 17
Moldova3TB-ARC Belarus1
30LIN-2Beijing0.833Russia1E. Europe3Casali et al, 20141Russia-Belarus 22
Belarus2 (2)TB-ARC Belarus2
31LIN-2Beijing0.982Russia1 (1)E. Europe2TB-ARC Moldova1Russia-Moldova 27
Moldova1Casali et al, 20141
32LIN-4H31.003Russia2E. Europe3Casali et al, 20142Russia-Belarus 116
Belarus1TB-ARC Belarus1
  • For each unique MDR clade in the phylogeny, defined as the set of descendants from a single node where MDR arose in our parsimony-based analysis (see Methods section), we calculated the number of countries and UN geographic regions represented. For each MDR-defining node, the table provides lineage and spoligotype designations for descendent strains, the level of statistical confidence for each node in the phylogenetic tree (figure 3), the total number of descendent strains as well as by country, UN geographic region and dataset, and the minimum SNP distance between isolates from each country pair, defined as the minimum distance between all pairs of strains from each two countries contained in a single MDR clade. WHO high burden countries are indicated in red.

  • MDR, multidrug-resistant; SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism; XDR, extensively drug-resistant.