Table 1

Interventions that have been demonstrated to reduce the risk of exacerbation and/or hospitalisation in patients with COPD, alone or in combination106

Non-pharmacologicalPharmocological
Influenza vaccinationInhaled corticosteroid
Pneumococcal vaccinationLong acting beta agonists
Pulmonary rehabilitationLong acting antimuscarinics
Volume reduction interventionsLong-term macrolide antibiotics
Domiciliary non-invasive ventilationMucolytic-antioxidants
PDE4 inhibitors
Anti-IL5
  • Not all interventions are effective in all patients and a personalised approach is mandatory.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.