Table 1

P. aeruginosa and S. aureus infections in pulmonary disease

StudyNumberCountryAge (years)SpecimenAnalysis P. aeruginosa (%) S. aureus (%)Coinfection (%)Outcome analysed?
Cystic fibrosis*
35 n=283Germany0–57 (md 7)Various†CultureNA5929Yes
36 n=354USA6–32.8 (mean 15.7)VariousCulture30‡11.9§11.0¶Yes
40 n=234USA25.4±10.9VariousCulture263231Yes
37 n=84Canada>18SputumCulture602412Yes
39 n=100USA0.4–16.9 (mean 9.1)VariousCulture468840?No
41 n=419France23.1±9.8 (mean±SD)SputumCulture677260Yes
43 n=111USA<6BALCulture532418Yes
44 n=81USA≤13OPCulture19338.6Yes
Non-CF bronchiectasis
86 n=150Saudi Arabia7.3±4.1 (mean±SD)NP, sputumCulture167NANo
87 n=93UK1.6–18.8 (md 7.2)VariousCulture68NANo
88 n=111Turkey1–17.5 (md 7.4)SputumCulture1117NANo
89 n=136UK3–18 (md 12.1)VariousCulture114NANo
90 n=92Ireland1.5–13 (md 6.4)Sputum, BALCulture915NANo
91 n=104Australia0.4–12.9 (md 2.4)BALCulture030No
92 n=113Australia0.4–12.9 (md 2.4)BALCulture250Yes
93 n=2596Various (Europe)57–74 (md 67)VariousCulture156NAYes, not coinfection
Ventilator-associated pneumonia
94 n=12UK23–70 (md 43.5)BAL16S sequencing350 000 OTU†150 000 OTUNANo
95 n=43USA65.9±16.8BALCulture4028NANo
96 n=36India18–78ETACulture3.779.430No
97 n=20UK20–79ETT16S DGGE20305No
98n=107UK>18 (mean 54)Dental, BAL, NALCulture PCR23, 29, 443, 37, 1410, NA, NANo
  • *For CF, only studies reporting coinfection are included.

  • †Cough swab, sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL).

  • ‡Chronic infection >50% positive cultures.

  • §Chronic MRSA (≥3 previous cultures positive).

  • ¶Chronic coinfection with P. aeruginosa and MRSA.

  • CF, cystic fibrosis; DGGE, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis; ETA, endotracheal aspiration; ETT, endotracheal tube; md, median; MRSA, methicillin-resistant S. aureus; NA, not analysed; NAL, non-directed alveolar lavage; NP, nasopharyngeal; OP, oropharyngeal swabs; OTT, operational taxonomic units.