Table 3

Unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted associations of nasal microbiota profiles at age 2 months with rate of acute respiratory infections (ARI) and lower respiratory infections (LRTI) during age 2–24 months*

Outcome by nasal microbiota profileUnadjusted analysisMultivariable-adjusted analysis
Incidence rate ratio
(95% CI)
P valueIncidence rate ratio
(95% CI)
P value
ARIs
Moraxella dominant1.34 (1.16 to 1.54)<0.0011.19 (1.04 to 1.37)0.01
Streptococcus dominant1.16 (1.00 to 1.35)0.041.14 (0.99 to 1.31)0.08
Dolosigranulum dominant1.11 (0.96 to 1.29)0.151.08 (0.94 to 1.24)0.31
Staphylococcus dominant1.14 (0.98 to 1.32)0.101.14 (0.98 to 1.31)0.09
Corynebacteriaceae dominantReferenceReference
LRTIs
Moraxella dominant3.89 (1.47 to 11.06)0.0082.79 (1.04 to 8.09)0.04
Streptococcus dominant2.62 (0.95 to 7.67)0.071.89 (0.69 to 5.55)0.22
Dolosigranulum dominant2.38 (0.87 to 6.95)0.101.95 (0.72 to 5.69)0.19
Staphylococcus dominant3.42 (1.24 to 10.13)0.022.90 (1.07 to 8.49)0.04
Corynebacteriaceae dominantReferenceReference
  • *Incidence rates of ARIs and LRTIs were compared by using unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted negative binomial regression models with follow-up time from age 2 months visit to age 24 months as an offset variable. Multivariable analysis adjusted for nine patient-level covariates (age, sex, household siblings, parental asthma, birth by caesarean section, breast feeding, history of systemic antibiotic use, respiratory symptoms at the time of nasal sampling and respiratory virus in age 2 months sample). Corynebacteriaceae-dominant microbiota profile was used as the reference.