Table 2

Characteristics of study participants by Healthy Lifestyle Index score, International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood phase III

AllHealthy Lifestyle Index pointsP value
0 or 1234 or 5
Participants70 79511 789 (16.6)23 565 (33.3)23 504 (33.2)11 937 (16.9)
Current wheeze69 9871363 (11.7)2643 (11.4)2306 (9.9)1031 (8.7)<0.001
Asthma ever69 3691199 (10.4)2336 (10.1)2319 (10.0)1136 (9.7)0.303
Current symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis59 0911072 (11.1)2183 (11.2)2150 (10.8)1033 (10.3)0.102
Hay fever ever66 8301131 (10.2)2377 (10.7)2353 (10.6)1170 (10.4)0.542
Current symptoms of eczema66 147976 (8.9)1846 (8.4)1863 (8.4)927 (8.2)0.200
Eczema ever66 5071942 (17.7)4035 (18.3)4008 (18.1)2367 (20.9)<0.001
Region of the world
 Western Europe70 7952916 (24.7)6594 (28.0)7104 (30.2)4388 (36.8)<0.001
 Northern and Eastern Europe1939 (16.5)2958 (12.6)2437 (10.4)1144 (9.6)
 Eastern Mediterranean1624 (13.8)3409 (14.5)3112 (13.2)1329 (11.1)
 Latin America3320 (28.2)6632 (28.1)6895 (29.3)2978 (24.9)
 Asia Pacific1668 (14.1)3062 (13.0)2609 (11.1)1276 (10.7)
 Oceania322 (2.7)910 (3.9)1347 (5.7)822 (6.9)
Gross national income per capita
 Low income70 79557 (0.50)353 (1.50)630 (2.7)398 (3.3)<0.001
 Low middle income2456 (20.8)4580 (19.4)3582 (15.2)1124 (9.4)
 Upper middle income5144 (43.6)9534 (40.5)9318 (39.6)4387 (36.8)
 High income4132 (35.1)9098 (38.6)9974 (42.4)6028 (50.5)
Child's sex, male70 7955672 (48.1)11 535 (48.9)11 912 (50.7)6003 (50.3)<0.001
Maternal education level
 Primary64 3522806 (25.6)4681 (21.8)4077 (19.2)1682 (15.8)<0.001
 Secondary5077 (46.4)9841 (45.8)9286 (43.7)4186 (39.3)
 Terciary3055 (27.9)6987 (32.5)7889 (37.1)4785 (44.9)
Ever breastfed67 1508411 (76.3)17 494 (78.7)18 075 (80.7)9516 (82.8)<0.001
Siblings, yes64 9928781 (80.9)17 904 (82.8)18 300 (84.8)9384 (85.8)<0.001
Pets at home66 1324419 (39.3)8106 (36.5)7630 (34.9)3610 (33.2)<0.001
Paracetamol use for fever68 4807562 (66.6)15 054 (66.2)14 634 (64.3)7214 (62.2)<0.001
  • Data are n (%). P value derived from χ2 test.