Table 2

Results of primary outcomes: quality of life

GroupBaseline (B)
(start of treatment)
Mid-treatmentEnd of treatment (EoT)Mid-follow-upEnd of follow-up
(EoFu)
St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire total score
Ginseng, mean (SD)28.57 (12.54)27.81 (13.61)27.41 (13.88)28.48 (14.27)27.16 (14.57)
Placebo, mean (SD)29.19 (14.46)26.46 (13.95)26.60 (16.0)27.55 (15.83)29.11 (15.73)
Ginseng change, mean (95% CI)B–EoT: 1.17 (−0.85 to 3.19), p=0.25
B–EoFu: 1.41 (−0.78 to 3.61), p=0.20
EoT–EoFu: 0.25 (−1.32 to 1.81), p=0.75
Placebo change, mean (95% CI)B–EoT: 2.59 (0.81 to 4.38*), p=0.005
B–EoFu: 0.08 (−2.33 to 2.49), p=0.95
EoT–EoFu: −2.52 (−4.53 to −0.50*), p=0.02
Between-group difference, mean (95% CI)0.62 (−3.51 to 4.75)−1.35 (−5.55 to 2.85)−0.81 (−5.38 to 3.76)−0.94 (−5.53 to 3.66)1.95 (−2.67 to 6.58)
COPD Assessment Test
Ginseng, mean (SD)13.57 (5.36)13.18 (5.64)12.72 (5.65)13.13 (5.78)12.04 (5.89)
Placebo, mean (SD)13.43 (5.49)13.05 (5.83)12.71 (6.40)12.74 (6.51)13.10 (6.77)
Ginseng change, mean (95% CI)B–EoT: 0.85 (−0.20 to 1.91), p=0.11
B–EoFu: 1.54 (0.60 to 2.48*), p=0.002
EoT–EoFu: 0.68 (−0.11 to 1.47), p=0.09
Placebo change, mean (95% CI)B–EoT: 0.72 (−0.12 to 1.57), p=0.09
B–EoFu: 0.33 (−0.90 to 1.55), p=0.60
EoT–EoFu: −4.0 (−1.46 to 0.67), p=0.46
Between-group difference, mean (95% CI)−0.14 (−1.80 to 1.51)−0.14 (−1.89 to 1.61)−0.01 (−1.85 to 1.83)−0.39 (−2.27 to 1.49)1.07 (−0.87 to 3.01)
Short Form Health Survey: mental score
Ginseng, mean (SD)51.20 (7.88)NC52.26 (6.86)NC52.50 (7.12)
Placebo, mean (SD)51.86 (7.80)NC52.22 (8.74)NC51.39 (8.55)
Ginseng change, mean (95% CI)B–EoT: −1.06 (−2.41 to 0.29), p=0.12EoT–EoFu: −0.24 (−1.17 to 0.69), p=0.61
Placebo change, mean (95% CI)B–EoT: −0.36 (−1.68 to 0.97), p=0.59EoT–EoFu: 0.84 (−0.58 to 2.26), p=0.25
Between-group difference, mean (95% CI)0.66 (−1.73 to 3.05)NC−0.04 (−2.44 to 2.36)NC−1.12 (−3.52 to 1.29)
Short Form Health Survey: physical score
Ginseng mean (SD)47.19 (6.14)NC47.00 (6.46)NC47.28 (5.61)
Placebo, mean (SD)45.82 (7.31)NC46.69 (7.08)NC45.67 (7.37)
Ginseng change, mean (95% CI)B–EoT: 0.18 (−0.83 to 1.96)EoT–EoFu: −0.27 (−1.12 to 0.57)
Placebo change, mean (95% CI)B–EoT: −0.87 (−1.89 to 0.14)EoT–EoFu: 1.02 (0.04 to 2.0)
Between-group difference, mean (95% CI)−1.37 (−3.43 to 0.69)NC−0.31 (−2.38 to 1.75)NC−0.61 (−3.61 to 0.39)
  • Results are presented using intention-to-treat between baseline and end of treatment; intention-to-treat was dispensed with at mid-follow-up and end of follow-up.

  • *Statistically significant at 5% level of significance. Paired t-tests were used for testing within-group difference, and two-sample t-tests were used for testing between group mean change difference.

  • NC, not calculated.