Table 1

Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics

CharacteristicsGinsengPlacebo
Number of participants8286
Location
  • Guangzhou, China

5555
  • Melbourne, Australia

2731
Age, years, mean (SD)68.05 (9.03)67.55 (8.10)
Male, n (%)65 (79.3)70 (81.4)
Smoking status, n (%)
  • Current

18 (22.0)27 (31.4)
  • Former

50 (61.0)50 (58.1)
  • Never

14 (17.0)9 (10.5)
Body mass index, mean (SD)25.0 (5.89)24.45 (4.64)
FEV1, L, mean (SD)1.65 (0.44)1.72 (0.45)
SGRQ total score, mean (SD)28.57 (12.54)29.0 (14.66)
Duration of COPD, years, mean (SD)5.18 (5.50)4.05 (3.32)
COPD medication, n (%)
  • Long-acting bronchodilators (muscarinic antagonists or beta-agonists)

11 (13.4)19 (22.1)
  • Inhaled corticosteroids plus long-acting beta-agonists

14 (17.1)16 (18.6)
Chinese medicine diagnosis, n (%)
  • Lung qi deficiency

9 (11.0)10 (11.6)
  • Lung and spleen qi deficiency

22 (26.8)28 (32.6)
  • Lung, spleen and kidney qi deficiency

24 (29.3)21 (24.4)
  • Lung and kidney deficiency

27 (32.9)27 (31.4)
  • SGRQ, St George‚Äôs Respiratory Questionnaire.