Table 1

Anthropometric and spirometric z-scores in patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) aged 6–18 years from the DR Congo and local controls aged 6–12 years

IndexSCA groupControlsMean difference (95% CI)
SCA−controls
N (% male)112 (59%)377 (55%)
Age (years)11.2 (3.3)9.5 (1.6)1.6* (1.2 to 2.1)
Height z-score−1.16 (1.41)0.33 (1.11)−1.50* (−1.75 to −1.25)
BMI z-score−1.47 (1.07)−0.20 (1.10)−1.28* (−1.51 to −1.04)
FEV1 z-score−1.48 (1.01)−0.16 (0.79)−1.33* (−1.51 to −1.15)
FEV1% predicted80.2 (13.1)97.9 (10.2)−17.7%* (−20.0 to −15.3)
FVC z-score−1.35 (1.03)−0.09 (0.83)−1.26* (−1.44 to −1.07)
FVC% predicted83.0 (13)98.8 (10.7)−15.8* (−18.3 to −13.5)
FEV1/FVC z-score−0.50 (0.80)−0.17 (0.71)−0.33** (−0.48 to −0.18)
  • Results are presented as mean (SD), unless otherwise specified.

  • BMI and height z-scores based on WHO 2007 growth charts.7

  • Spirometry z-scores and % predicted values based on Global Lung Function Initiative 2012 equations for African Americans.8

  • *p<0.0001; **p<0.01.

  • BMI, body mass index.