Table 4

Unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted associations of nasal microbiota profiles at age 2 months with risk of recurrent wheezing by age 24 months*

Outcome by nasal microbiota profileUnadjusted analysisMultivariable-adjusted analysis
HR (95% CI)P valueHR (95%CI)P value
Recurrent wheezing
Moraxella dominant1.75 (0.95 to 3.21)0.071.82 (0.94 to 3.52)0.08
Streptococcus dominantReferenceReference
Dolosigranulum dominant1.58 (0.82 to 3.04)0.171.75 (0.90 to 3.41)0.10
Staphylococcus dominant1.45 (0.73 to 2.91)0.291.59 (0.78 to 3.21)0.20
Corynebacteriaceae dominant1.13 (0.41 to 3.11)0.811.21 (0.43 to 3.36)0.72
  • *Risk of recurrent wheezing (≥3 wheezing episodes at age 2–24 months) was compared by using unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Multivariable analysis adjusted for nine potential patient-level confounders (age, sex, household siblings, parental asthma, birth by caesarean section, breast feeding, history of systemic antibiotic use, respiratory symptoms at the time of nasal sampling and respiratory virus in age 2 months sample). Streptococcus-dominant microbiota profile was used as the reference.