Table 1

Comparisons of longitudinal outcome measures in research participants with interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) or subclinical interstitial lung disease (ILD) by cohort

VariablePer cent or median/means where appropriate and noted
Baseline prevalence of ILA (%) 11384791078
Radiological progression
Overall progression, follow-up time46%,
4 years
3 years
6 years
2 years
FVC annual rate of decline (compared with general pop)~2 times greater
(for those with imaging progression)
Development of ARDSOR 4.2 (among those presenting to the ICU with
SIRS or sepsis)
Development of clinical ILD/PF diagnosesIncreased ILD diagnoses in those with elevated measures of
Some cases identified on death certificatesSome cases identified on death certificatesSome cases identified on autopsy
Risk of deathIncreased mortality in those with elevated measures of HAARR 1.6*
(also increased in those with increased quantitative interstitial changes)
RR 2.2*RR 1.4*RR>4.0*RR 1.3RR 2.1
Absolute mortality10%
~5 years
~4 years
~3 years
~12 years
~9 years
~28 days
  • †MESA: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis—lung study. Data in the MESA column refer to Lederer et al,12 Podolanczuk et al 19 and Podolanczuk et al.41 The range of values noted in the column refers to the differences in expected prevalence depending on the threshold of high attenuation areas used to define ILA.

  • ‡Nagano, Japan: Subjects participating in a health screening programme from Nagano Prefecture, Japan. Data refer to Tsushima et al.23

  • §COPDGene: Data in the COPDGene column refer to Washko et al,13 Putman et al 42 and Ash et al.34

  • ¶MILD: The Multicentric Italian Lung Detection trial. Data in the MILD column refer to Sverzellati et al.18 Estimates of prevalence, frequency and median values refer to those with interstitial abnormalities but limited to either a usual interstitial pneumonia or another chronic interstitial pneumonia pattern on chest CT.

  • **FHS: Framingham Heart Study. Data in the FHS column refer to Hunninghake et al,14 Putman et al 42 and Araki et al.40

  • ††ECLIPSE: Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints. Data in the ECLIPSE column refer to Putman et al.42

  • ‡‡ NLST: National Lung Screening Trial. Data in the NLST column refer to Jin et al 16 and Pompe et al.44

  • §§AGES-Reykjavik: Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik study. Data in the AGES-Reykjavik column refer to Putman et al.42

  • ¶¶ BWH RoCI: Brigham and Women’s Hospital Registry of Critical Illness cohort. Data in the BWH RoCI column refer to Putman et al. 43

  • ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; HAA, high attenuation areas (of the lung); ICU, intensive care unit; PF, pulmonary fibrosis; SIRS, systemic inflammatory response syndrome.