Table 4

Factors associated with quality-adjusted survival time

UnivariateMultivariate predictiveExplanatory
HR*95% CIP valuesHR*95% CIP valuesHR*95% CIP values
Predictive variables
 Age0.9980.98 to 1.020.87
 Male gender0.730.46 to 1.160.18
 Zubrod 2–4 vs 0–13.642.26 to 5.87<0.0013.672.14 to 6.29<0.0015.072.83 to 9.1<0.001
 Urgent/emergent vs elective1.570.92 to 2.660.1
 Time from diagnosis to procedure (weeks)11.00 to to 0.99970.02
 Baseline Borg1.161.07 to 1.25<0.0011.131.03 to 1.240.0081.121.02 to 1.230.02
 Baseline utility2.250.43 to 11.730.34
  COPD0.790.4 to 1.540.49
  Cardiovascular1.570.95 to to 3.740.038
  Diabetes0.840.48 to 1.460.54
  Second primary1.290.64 to 2.60.48
 Cancer type
  Lung0.930.59 to 1.460.75
  Other malignancies<ref>
 Initial treatment type
  Surgery1.430.75 to 2.720.282.131.03 to to 11.36<0.001
  Chemotherapy2.811.44 to 5.460.0023.421.6 to 7.270.0043.871.77 to 8.450.001
  Radiation therapy2.341.06 to to to 5.080.1
  No treatment<ref><ref><ref>
 Any prior therapeutic bronchoscopy0.30.1 to 0.970.04
 Indication(s) for therapeutic bronchoscopy†
  Tracheoesophageal fistula1.270.4 to 4.040.69
  Haemoptysis0.610.34 to 1.110.11
 Number of bronchopulmonary segments obstructed1.061.01 to 1.110.02
 Location of most proximal obstruction
  Trachea1.60.76 to 3.360.22
  Bilateral mainstem2.10.77 to 5.720.15
  Right mainstem1.010.48 to 2.110.98
 Left mainstem0.740.33 to 1.680.47
  Right bronchus intermedius0.960.4 to 2.310.92
  Lobar only<ref>
 Obstruction type of most proximal location
  Extrinsic2.151.29 to 3.570.0032.81.6 to 4.88<0.0012.881.61 to 5.12<0.001
  Mixed3.81.91 to 7.59<0.0012.130.97 to 4.680.061.660.71 to 3.860.24
Explanatory variables
 Ventilation type
  Jet ventilation1.860.75 to 4.60.18
  Volume cycled0.640.28 to 1.480.3
 Bronchoscopy type
  Rigid and flexible1.230.53 to 2.830.63
  Flexible only<ref>
 Treatment modalities
  Any laser0.480.24 to 0.970.04
  Electrocautery0.620.37 to 1.040.07
  Argon plasma0.90.57 to 1.420.65
  Cryorecanalisation0.690.38 to 1.250.22
  Microdebrider0.720.42 to 1.230.22
  Rigid ‘coring’0.770.37 to 1.60.48
  Dilation1.570.91 to to 4.190.02
 Stent at first procedure2.271.44 to 3.59<0.001
 Stent type placed
  Aero1.230.52 to 2.950.64
  Y-Stent0.740.3 to 1.860.52
 Technical success
  Complete or partial0.640.32 to 1.290.21
 Postprocedure treatment
  Chemotherapy0.880.56 to 1.380.580.440.26 to 0.740.002
  Radiation therapy0.520.33 to 0.830.01
  • *Higher HR represents an increased risk for shorter quality-adjusted survival.

  • †Patients could have one or more comorbidities, so each comorbidity is dichotomous. For therapeutic bronchoscopy indication(s), patients could have more than one indication for bronchoscopy, but one of them had to be for malignant central airway obstruction.