Table 2

Factors associated with change in dyspnoea (Borg score day-7 minus Borg baseline)*

UnivariateMultivariate predictiveMultivariate explanatory
Coefficient95% CIP valuesCoefficient95% CIP valuesCoefficient95% CIP values
Predictive variables
 Age0.01−0.03 to 0.050.53
 Male gender0.63−0.27 to 1.530.17
 Zubrod 2-4 vs 0-1−0.21−1.08 to 0.670.64
 Baseline utility1.04−2.27 to 4.350.54
 Baseline Borg−0.53−0.66 to −0.40<0.001−0.53−0.66 to −0.40<0.001−0.52−0.64 to −0.40<0.001
 Urgent/emergent vs elective−0.21−1.31 to 0.890.71
 Time from diagnosis to procedure (weeks)0−0.002 to 0.0020.89
   COPD−0.42−1.70 to 0.860.52
   Cardiovascular−0.35−1.36 to 0.660.49
   Diabetes−0.21−1.23 to 0.820.69
  Second primary solid tumour0.79−0.64 to 2.210.28
 Cancer type
   Lung0.32−0.57 to 1.200.48
   Other malignancies<ref>
 Initial treatment type
   Surgery−0.34−1.47 to 0.790.55
   Chemotherapy−0.58−1.82 to 0.650.35
   Radiation therapy−0.93−2.55 to 0.700.26
   No treatment<ref>
 Any prior therapeutic bronchoscopy1.780.23 to 3.320.02
 Indication(s) for therapeutic bronchoscopy†
   Tracheoesophageal fistula−0.05−2.19 to 2.080.96
   Haemoptysis0.61−0.47 to 1.690.26
  Number of bronchopulmonary segments obstructed−0.05−0.13 to 0.040.29
 Location of most proximal obstruction
   Trachea−0.83−2.32 to 0.660.27
   Bilateral mainstem−0.86−2.85 to 1.140.40
   Right mainstem−1.15−2.57 to 0.270.11
   Left mainstem−0.91−2.47 to 0.650.25
   Right bronchus intermedius−0.25−2.04 to 1.540.78
   Lobar only<ref>
 Obstruction type of most proximal location
   Extrinsic0.41−0.61 to 1.420.43
   Mixed0.71−0.83 to 2.240.36
Explanatory variables
 Ventilation type
   Jet ventilation0.02−1.48 to 1.530.97
   Volume cycled<ref>
 Bronchoscopy type
   Rigid and flexible0.27−1.32 to 1.850.74
   Flexible only<ref>
 Treatment modalities
   Any laser−0.58−1.73 to 0.560.31
   Electrocautery−0.41−1.34 to 0.520.39
   Argon plasma0.62−0.27 to 1.510.17
   Cryorecanalisation−1.29−2.090.02−1.1−1.88 to −0.320.007
   Microdebrider−0.63−1.60 to 0.350.21
   Rigid ‘coring’−0.58−1.96 to 0.790.40
   Dilation0.68−0.41 to 1.770.22
  Stent at first procedure0.07−0.87 to 1.000.89
 Stent type placed
   Aero−0.45−1.97 to 1.070.55
   Y-Stent0.22−1.40 to 1.840.79
 Technical success
   Complete or partial−0.49−1.87 to 0.880.48
 Postprocedure treatment
   Surgery0.66−1.50 to 2.820.55
   Chemotherapy0.08−0.81 to 0.960.86
   Radiation therapy0.36−0.52 to 1.230.43
  • *Day-7 Borg score is 7  days after the study entry bronchoscopy. If the patient had subsequent bronchoscopies, these were not included in this analysis.

  • †Patients could have one or more comorbidities, so each comorbidity is dichotomous. For bronchoscopy indication, patients could have more than one indication for bronchoscopy, but one of them had to be for malignant central airway obstruction.